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In this study, we investigated the role of orexinergic systems in dopamine-related behaviors induced by the mu-opioid receptor agonist morphine in rodents. Extensive coexpression of tyrosine hydroxylase with orexin receptors was observed in the mouse ventral tegmental area (VTA). The levels of dopamine and its major metabolites in the nucleus accumbens were(More)
Ligand-directed signaling has been suggested as a basis for the differences in responses evoked by otherwise receptor-selective agonists. The underlying mechanisms are not understood, yet clearer definition of this concept may be helpful in the development of novel, pathway-selective therapeutic agents. We previously showed that kappa-opioid receptor(More)
SUMMARY Maladaptive responses to stress adversely affect human behavior, yet the signaling mechanisms underlying stress-responsive behaviors remain poorly understood. Using a conditional gene knockout approach, the a isoform of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was selectively inactivated by AAV1-Cre-recombinase infection in specific brain regions(More)
In the present study, we investigated the role of orexinergic systems in the activation of midbrain dopamine neurons. In an in vitro study, exposure to either orexin A or orexin B under superfusion conditions produced a transient increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration through the phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC) pathway via(More)
Long-term exposure to pyschostimulants and opioids induced neuronal plasticity. Accumulating evidence suggests that astrocytes actively participate in synaptic plasticity. We show here that a glial modulator propentofylline (PPF) dramatically diminished the activation of astrocytes induced by drugs of abuse, such as methamphetamine (METH) and morphine(More)
It is well known that long-term exposure to psychostimulants induces neuronal plasticity. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that astrocytes may actively participate in synaptic plasticity. In this study, we found that in vitro treatment of cortical neuron/glia co-cultures with either methamphetamine (METH) or morphine (MRP) caused the activation of(More)
Astrocytes are a subpopulation of glial cells that directly affect neuronal function. This review focuses on the potential functional roles of astrocytes in the development of behavioral sensitization and rewarding effects induced by chronic treatment with drugs of abuse. In vitro treatment of cortical neuron/glia cocultures with either methamphetamine or(More)
One of the most common chemicals that behaves as an endocrine disruptor is the compound 4,4'-isopronylidenediphenol, called bisphenol-A (BPA). We previously reported that prenatal and postnatal exposure to BPA potentiated central dopaminergic neurotransmission, resulting in supersensitivity to psychostimulant-induced pharmacological actions. Many recent(More)
Thermal hyperalgesia and tactile allodynia induced by sciatic nerve ligation were completely suppressed by repeated intrathecal (i.t.) injection of a TrkB/Fc chimera protein, which sequesters endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In addition, BDNF heterozygous (+/-) knockout mice exhibited a significant suppression of nerve ligation-induced(More)
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the implication of delta-opioid receptor function in neurogenesis and neuroprotection. We found that the stimulation of delta-opioid receptors by the selective delta-opioid receptor agonist SNC80 [(+)-4-[(alphaR)-alpha-((2S,5R)-4-allyl-2,5-dimethyl-1-piperazinyl)-3-methoxybenzyl]-N,N-diethylbenzamide] (10 nm)(More)