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Chloroplasts have been reported to generate retrograde immune signals that activate defense gene expression in the nucleus. However, the roles of light and photosynthesis in plant immunity remain largely elusive. In this study, we evaluated the effects of light on the expression of defense genes induced by flg22, a peptide derived from bacterial flagellins(More)
Octopamine (OCT)/tyramine (TYR) analogues, mainly including p- and beta-substituted phenylethylamines, were prepared as probes for the ligand-binding site(s) of adenylate cyclase-coupled OCT or TYR receptors, and were examined for their effects on cAMP production in the head membranes of Bombyx mori larvae. Small structural changes in OCT and TYR proved to(More)
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