Mayank N. Vahia

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The script of the ancient Indus civilization remains undeciphered. The hypothesis that the script encodes language has recently been questioned. Here, we present evidence for the linguistic hypothesis by showing that the script's conditional entropy is closer to those of natural languages than various types of nonlinguistic systems.
Although no historical information exists about the Indus civilization (flourished ca. 2600-1900 B.C.), archaeologists have uncovered about 3,800 short samples of a script that was used throughout the civilization. The script remains undeciphered, despite a large number of attempts and claimed decipherments over the past 80 years. Here, we propose the use(More)
Archaeological excavations in the sites of the Indus Valley civilization (2500-1900 BCE) in Pakistan and northwestern India have unearthed a large number of artifacts with inscriptions made up of hundreds of distinct signs. To date, there is no generally accepted decipherment of these sign sequences, and there have been suggestions that the signs could be(More)
We adopt a comprehensive approach to segment the Indus texts using statistically significant signs and their combinations in addition to all the texts of length 2, 3 and 4 signs. We find that we can segment 88% of Indus texts (of length 5 and above) by this method and hence it can be suggested that the texts of 5 or more signs can actually be seen as(More)
The Indus script is one of the major undeciphered scripts of the ancient world. The small size of the corpus, the absence of bilingual texts, and the lack of definite knowledge of the underlying language has frustrated efforts at decipherment since the discovery of the remains of the Indus civilization. Building on previous statistical approaches, we apply(More)
Three different types of very intense, quasi-regular X-ray bursts have been observed from the Galactic superluminal X-ray transient source GRS 1915+105 with the Pointed Proportional Counters of the Indian X-ray Astronomy Experiment onboard the Indian satellite IRS-P3. The observations were carried out from 1997 June 12 to June 29 in the energy range of 2−18(More)
BACKGROUND Early human migration is largely determined by geography and human needs. These are both deterministic parameters when small populations move into unoccupied areas where conflicts and large group dynamics are not important. The early period of human migration into the British Isles provides such a laboratory which, because of its relative(More)
Understanding the syntax of an undeciphered writing is a significant challenge. This can provide important clues to the nature of writing and guide potential decipherments. Here we evaluate a set of computational tools that can help us address this problem. We show that significant aspects of the writing can be inferred through this approach without making(More)