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OBJECTIVE To determine the most effective method for analysing haemoglobin concentrations in large surveys in remote areas, and to compare two methods (indirect cyanmethaemoglobin and HemoCue) with the conventional method (direct cyanmethaemoglobin). METHODS Samples of venous and capillary blood from 121 mothers in Indonesia were compared using all three(More)
In Bangladesh, rice prices are known to be positively associated with the prevalence of child underweight and inversely associated with household nongrain food expenditures, an indicator of dietary quality. The collection of reliable data on household expenditures is relatively time consuming and requires extensive training. Simple dietary diversity scores(More)
BACKGROUND Many developing countries now face the double burden of malnutrition, defined as the coexistence of a stunted child and overweight mother within the same household. OBJECTIVE This study sought to estimate the prevalence of the double burden of malnutrition and to identify associated maternal, child, and household characteristics in rural(More)
BACKGROUND Iron deficiency anemia is the most prevalent nutrition problem in young children. One possible strategy to prevent iron deficiency anemia in this population group is the fortification of affordable food. OBJECTIVE This study was designed to assess whether iron-fortified candies can improve iron status and are acceptable to children aged 4-6 y.(More)
In Bangladesh, poor rural families often deal with high food costs by purchasing primarily rice. Our objective was to characterize the relationship between household expenditure on rice and nonrice foods with maternal and child malnutrition. Food expenditure data and anthropometry were obtained in a population-based sample of 304,856 households in the(More)
In developing countries, poor families in urban slums often do not receive municipal services including water. The objectives of our study were to characterize families who purchased drinking water and to examine the relation between purchasing drinking water and child morbidity and mortality in urban slums of Indonesia, using data collected between 1999(More)
Iron deficiency anemia among young children is a large health problem. However, there is little information about the prevalence of anemia among young infants because it has been assumed that normal, breast-fed infants have adequate iron stores until 4-6 mo of age. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the HKI/GOI Nutrition and Health Surveillance System in(More)
BACKGROUND Using formative research to guide the planning and implementation of home fortification programs is critical if they are to achieve the desired level of acceptance and coverage by the target beneficiaries. OBJECTIVE To explore contextual factors that could influence acceptance, delivery, and use of micronutrient powders (MNP) in Aileu District,(More)
BACKGROUND Food insecurity is common in developing countries and is related to the physical well-being of families. Household food insecurity is intended to reflect a household's access, availability, and utilization of food, but its relationship with child mortality has not been well characterized. OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship of a modified(More)
We examined the relationship between paternal smoking and child mortality. Among 361,021 rural and urban families in Indonesia, paternal smoking was associated with increased infant mortality (rural, odds ratio [OR] = 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24, 1.35; urban, OR = 1.10; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.20), and under-5 child mortality (rural, OR = 1.32; 95%(More)