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The five muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) subtypes, termed m1-m5, transduce agonist signals across the plasma membrane by activating guanine nucleotide binding (G) proteins. The large cytoplasmic domain joining the fifth and sixth transmembrane segments of mAChRs plays a critical role in controlling the specificity of G protein coupling. In this(More)
The serine/threonine kinase protein kinase B (PKB)/Akt is a critical regulator of insulin signaling, cell survival, and oncogenesis. The activation mechanisms of this key kinase are well characterized. In contrast, inactivation of PKB signaling by phosphatases is less well understood. To study the dynamics of PKB signaling in live cells, we generated a(More)
As many as 50 genes in the C. elegans genome may encode K+ channels belonging to the novel structural class of two-pore (4TM) channels. Many 4TM channels can be grouped into channel subfamilies. We analyzed 4TM channels in C. elegans using methods made possible by having complete genomic sequence. Two genes were chosen for comprehensive analysis, n2P16 and(More)
Within the Caenorhabditis elegans genome there exist at least 42 genes encoding TWK (two-P domain K(+)) channels, potassium channel subunits that contain two pore regions and four transmembrane domains. We now report the first functional characterization of a TWK channel from C. elegans. Although potassium channels have been reported to be activated by a(More)
Optimal tuning of enzyme signaling is critical for cellular homeostasis. We use fluorescence resonance energy transfer reporters in live cells to follow conformational transitions that tune the affinity of a multidomain signal transducer, protein kinase C (PKC), for optimal response to second messengers. This enzyme comprises two diacylglycerol sensors, the(More)
The relationship between the genome and the evolution of the nervous system may differ between an animal like C. elegans with 302 neurons, and mammals with tens of billions of neurons. Here we report that a class of nonconserved potassium channels highly expanded in C. elegans may play a special role in the evolution of its nervous system. The C. elegans(More)
Phosphorylation of gap junction proteins, connexins, plays a role in global signaling events involving kinases. Connexin43 (Cx43), a ubiquitous and important connexin, has several phosphorylation sites for specific kinases. We appended an imaging reporter tag for the activity of the δ isoform of protein kinase C (PKCδ) to the carboxyl terminus of Cx43. The(More)
Negative regulation of the heartbeat rate involves the activation of an inwardly rectifying potassium current (I(KACh)) by G protein-coupled receptors such as the m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Recent studies have shown that this process involves the direct binding of G(betagamma) subunits to the NH(2)- and COOH-terminal cytoplasmic domains of the(More)
Elevated catecholamines in the heart evoke transcriptional activation of the Myocyte Enhancer Factor (MEF) pathway to induce a cellular response known as pathological myocardial hypertrophy. We have discovered that the A-Kinase Anchoring Protein (AKAP)-Lbc is upregulated in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. It coordinates activation and movement of signaling(More)
Protein kinase D (PKD) is a nodal point in cardiac hypertrophic signaling. It triggers nuclear export of class II histone deacetylase (HDAC) and regulates transcription. Although this pathway is thought to be critical in cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, little is known about spatiotemporal aspects of PKD activation at the myocyte level. Here, we(More)