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Arrival times of requests to print in a student laboratory were analyzed. Inter-arrival times between subsequent requests follow a universal scaling law relating time intervals and the size of the request, indicating a scale invariant dynamics with respect to the size. The cumulative distribution of file sizes is well-described by a modified power law often… (More)

Spatial distances between subsequent earthquakes in southern California exhibit scale-free statistics, with a critical exponent delta approximately 0.6, as well as finite size scaling. The statistics are independent of the threshold magnitude as long as the catalog is complete, but depend strongly on the temporal ordering of events, rather than the geometry… (More)

We propose a metric to quantify correlations between earthquakes. The metric consists of a product involving the time interval and spatial distance between two events, as well as the magnitude of the first one. According to this metric, events typically are strongly correlated to only one or a few preceding ones. Thus a classification of events as… (More)

For many real-world networks only a small "sampled" version of the original network may be investigated; those results are then used to draw conclusions about the actual system. Variants of breadth-first search (BFS) sampling, which are based on epidemic processes, are widely used. Although it is well established that BFS sampling fails, in most cases, to… (More)

Directed networks are ubiquitous and are necessary to represent complex systems with asymmetric interactions--from food webs to the World Wide Web. Despite the importance of edge direction for detecting local and community structure, it has been disregarded in studying a basic type of global diversity in networks: the tendency of nodes with similar numbers… (More)

A new heuristic based on vertex invariants is developed to rapidly distinguish non-isomorphic graphs to a desired level of accuracy. The method is applied to sample subgraphs from an E.coli protein interaction network, and as a probe for discovery of extended motifs. The network's structure is described using statistical properties of its N-node subgraphs… (More)

Slowly driven dissipative systems may evolve to a critical state where long periods of apparent equilibrium are punctuated by intermittent avalanches of activity. We present a self-organized critical model of punctuated equilibrium behavior in the context of biological evolution, and solve it in the limit that the number of independent traits for each… (More)

Clustering, assortativity, and communities are key features of complex networks. We probe dependencies between these features and find that ensembles of networks with high clustering display both high assortativity by degree and prominent community structure, while ensembles with high assortativity show much less enhancement of the clustering or community… (More)

- Maya Paczuski, Per Bak
- 1999

The basic laws of physics are simple, so why is the world complex? The theory of self-organized criticality posits that complex behavior in nature emerges from the dynamics of extended, dissipative systems that evolve through a sequence of meta-stable states into a critical state, with long range spatial and temporal correlations. Minor disturbances lead to… (More)

A mathematical model of interacting species filling ecological niches left by the extinction of others is introduced. Species organize themselves into genera of all sizes. The size of a genus on average grows linearly with its age, confirming a general relation between Age and Area proposed by Willis. The ecology exhibits punctuated equilibrium. Analytic… (More)