Maya Frankfurt

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Gonadal steroids are known to influence hippocampal physiology in adulthood. It is presently unknown whether gonadal steroids influence the morphology of hippocampal neurons in the adult intact rat brain. In order to determine whether female sex hormones influence hippocampal morphology in the intact adult, we performed Golgi impregnation on brains from(More)
We have used Golgi-impregnated tissue to demonstrate that apical dendritic spine density in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells undergoes a cyclic fluctuation as estradiol and progesterone levels vary across the estrous cycle in the adult female rat. We observed a 30% decrease in apical dendritic spine density over the 24-hr period between the late proestrus(More)
Exposure to stress during gestation results in physiological and behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. This study examined the effects of prenatal stress on the postnatal expression of sexually differentiated cognitive, hormonal, and neurochemical profiles in male and female rats. Pregnant dams were subjected to restraint stress three times(More)
Neurons in the adult rat ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN, 4-6 neurons per brain; 3-7 brains per group) were studied under various hormonal conditions using the single-section Golgi impregnation technique. Intact rats of both sexes and ovariectomized females treated with oil, estrogen or estrogen and progesterone were used. Golgi-impregnated neurons(More)
Exposure to Bisphenol-A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor used in plastics, occurs in the United States on a daily basis. Recent studies suggest exposure during development causes memory deficits later in life; however, the ramifications of exposure in adulthood are unclear. We examined the effects of acute BPA administration (40 μg/kg) on memory and synaptic(More)
Atrophy and dysfunction of the human hippocampus is a feature of aging in some individuals, and this dysfunction predicts later dementia. There is reason to believe that adrenal glucocorticoids may contribute to these changes, since the elevations of glucocorticoids in Cushing's syndrome and during normal aging are associated with atrophy of the entire(More)
Several lines of evidence have converged to indicate that memory formation involves plasticity of dendritic spines in the medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the hippocampus. Memory varies with estrogen levels throughout the lifespan of the female. Generally, increased levels of estrogen are related to greater dendritic spine density on pyramidal cells in(More)
Effects of ovariectomy (OVX) on performance of the memory tasks, Object Recognition (OR) and Object Placement (OP), and on dendritic spine density in pyramidal neurons in layer II/III of the prefrontal cortex and the CA1 and CA3 regions of the hippocampus were determined. OVX was associated with a significant decline in performance of the memory tasks as(More)
Acute effects of bisphenol (BPA), an environmental chemical, on estradiol (17α or β-E2)-dependent recognition memory and dendritic spines in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus were investigated in adult female rats. Ovariectomized rats received BPA 30 min before or immediately after a sample trial (viewing objects), and retention trials were(More)
Cognitive responses to stress follow the temporally dependent pattern originally established by Selye (1) wherein short-term stressors elicit adaptive responses whereas continued stress (chronic) results in maladaptive changes--deleterious effects on physiological systems and impaired cognition. However, this pattern for cognitive effects appears to apply(More)