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The primary CD8(+) T cell response of C57BL/6J mice against the 28 known epitopes of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is associated with a clear immunodominance hierarchy whose mechanism has yet to be defined. To evaluate the role of epitope competition in immunodominance, we manipulated the number of CD8(+) T cell epitopes that could be recognized(More)
Infection with one of the four serotypes of dengue virus (DENV1-4) can result in a range of clinical manifestations in humans, from dengue fever to the more serious dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome. Although T cells have been implicated in the immunopathogenesis of secondary infections with heterologous DENV serotypes, the role of T cells in(More)
We investigated the molecular determinants of allergen-derived T cell epitopes in humans utilizing the Phleum pratense (Timothy grass) allergens (Phl p). PBMCs from allergic individuals were tested in ELISPOT assays with overlapping peptides spanning known Phl p allergens. A total of 43 distinct antigenic regions were recognized, illustrating the large(More)
A major concern about the ongoing swine-origin H1N1 influenza virus (S-OIV) outbreak is that the virus may be so different from seasonal H1N1 that little immune protection exists in the human population. In this study, we examined the molecular basis for pre-existing immunity against S-OIV, namely the recognition of viral immune epitopes by T cells or B(More)
CD8(+) T-cell responses control lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection in H-2(b) mice. Although antigen-specific responses against LCMV infection are well studied, we found that a significant fraction of the CD8(+) CD44(hi) T-cell response to LCMV in H-2(b) mice was not accounted for by known epitopes. We screened peptides predicted to bind(More)
Influenza virus remains a significant health concern, with current circulating strains that affect millions each year plus the threat of newly emerging strains, such as swine-origin H1N1 and avian H5N1. Our hypothesis is that influenza-derived HLA-class I-restricted epitopes can be identified for use as a reagent to monitor and quantitate human CD8(+)(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have defined vaccinia virus (VACV)-derived T cell epitopes in VACV-infected human leukocyte antigen-A*0201 (HLA-A2.1) transgenic (Tg) mice and A2.1-positive human Dryvax vaccinees. A total of 14 epitopes were detected in humans and 16 epitopes in A2.1 Tg mice; however, only two epitopes were independently reported in both(More)
BACKGROUND The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) supplies cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum for binding to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Its specificity therefore influences the repertoire of peptides presented by MHC molecules. Compared to human TAP, murine TAP's binding specificity has not(More)
Activation of CD4(+) T cells helps establish and sustain CD8(+) T cell responses and is required for the effective clearance of acute infection. CD4-deficient mice are unable to control persistent infection and CD4(+) T cells are usually defective in chronic and persistent infections. We investigated the question of how persistent infection impacted(More)
Arenaviruses are the causative pathogens of severe hemorrhagic fever and aseptic meningitis in humans, for which no licensed vaccines are currently available. Pathogen heterogeneity within the Arenaviridae family poses a significant challenge for vaccine development. The main hypothesis we tested in the present study was whether it is possible to design a(More)