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In recognizing objects and scenes, partial recognition of objects or their parts can be used to guide the recognition of other objects. Here, the role of individual objects in the recognition of complete figures and the influence of contextual information on the identification of ambiguous objects were investigated. Configurations of objects that were(More)
Elicitor recognition plays a key role in the reaction of plants to pathogens and the induction of plant defense responses. Furthermore, plant-microbe interactions involve numerous regulatory systems essential for plant defense against pathogens. Ethylene-inducing xylanase (Eix) is a potent elicitor of plant defense responses in specific cultivars of tobacco(More)
The paper presents flows and methodologies for using plan-driven verification testbenches with accelerated verification engines via transaction oriented interfaces. It describes how to reuse stimulus generation, coverage analysis, checking and error handling in reactive and regression environments while optimizing the testbench architecture and modeling(More)
It has been argued that for antifreeze proteins (AFPs) to stop ice crystal growth, they must irreversibly bind to the ice surface. Surface-adsorbed AFPs should also prevent ice from melting, but to date this has been demonstrated only in a qualitative manner. Here we present the first quantitative measurements of superheating of ice in AFP solutions.(More)
The Tenebrio molitor thermal hysteresis protein has a cysteine content of 19%. This 84-residue protein folds as a compact beta-helix, with eight disulfide bonds buried in its core. Exposed on one face of the protein is an array of threonine residues, which constitutes the ice-binding face. Previous protocols for expression of this protein in recombinant(More)
The development of plant leaves follows a common basic program that is flexible and is adjusted according to species, developmental stage and environmental circumstances. Leaves initiate from the flanks of the shoot apical meristem and develop into flat structures of variable sizes and forms. This process is regulated by plant hormones, transcriptional(More)
SUMMARY Endocytosis is an essential process by which the eukaryotic cell internalizes exogenous material. Studies in yeast and mammalian cells have revealed that endocytosis is a complex molecular process depending on regulated interactions between a variety of proteins and lipids through specific modules. One such module is the Eps15 homology (EH) domain,(More)
Plant leaves develop in accordance with a common basic program, which is flexibly adjusted to the species, developmental stage and environment. Two key stages of leaf development are morphogenesis and differentiation. In the case of compound leaves, the morphogenesis stage is prolonged as compared to simple leaves, allowing for the initiation of leaflets.(More)
Endocytosis has been suggested to be crucial for the induction of plant immunity in several cases. We have previously shown that two Arabidopsis proteins, AtEHD1 and AtEHD2, are involved in endocytosis in plant systems. AtEHD2 has an inhibitory effect on endocytosis of transferrin, FM-4-64, and LeEix2. There are many works in mammalian systems detailing the(More)
Post-translational modification of target proteins by the small ubiquitin-like modifier protein (SUMO) regulates many cellular processes. SUMOylation has been shown to regulate cellular localization and function of a variety of proteins, in some cases affecting nuclear import or export. We have previously characterized two EHDs (EH domain containing(More)