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This study was performed to assess two-point discrimination ability for skin areas of the face and trunk. Using a compass-type instrument, I determined two-point discrimination values for three areas on the face and eight, nonoverlapping regions of the neck and trunk in a sample of 43 healthy young adult men and women. Mean values for the face ranged from(More)
Two-point discrimination sensitivity in the upper limb was evaluated in a sample of healthy, young adult men and women. A commercially available compass-type instrument was used to determine limits of two-point discrimination sensitivity in 11 skin areas on the subject's dominant side. For dermatomal regions of the arm and forearm, mean values ranged from(More)
During the past two years, we have been using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain control after spinal fusion with Harrington rods. This report describes our postoperative pain management program and our evaluation of its effectiveness. We examined postoperative pain medication usage and found that patients using TENS received fewer(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the effect of intramuscular botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) injections on pain, function/disability, global perceived effect, and quality of life (QOL) in adults with neck pain (NP). METHODS We searched Central, Medline, and Embase databases up to June 2010. A minimum of 2 authors independently selected articles, abstracted data, and(More)
The purpose of this study was to document conductive differences among commercially available electrodes used with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) devices. Impedance within a model system involving a human subject was calculated from oscilloscopic tracings of the pulse waveform for each of 25 different electrode types. Impedance values(More)
The purposes of this communication are 1) to call attention to several problematic issues related to the use of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain control and 2) to consider strategies for correcting existing problems and averting additional problems in the future. Specific problems within two general areas of difficulty are identified,(More)
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