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The purpose of this study was to characterize the contributions of individual muscles to forward progression and vertical support during walking. We systematically perturbed the forces in 54 muscles during a three-dimensional simulation of walking, and computed the changes in fore-aft and vertical accelerations of the body mass center due to the altered(More)
Muscles actuate walking by providing vertical support and forward progression of the mass center. To quantify muscle contributions to vertical support and forward progression (i.e., vertical and fore-aft accelerations of the mass center) over a range of walking speeds, three-dimensional muscle-actuated simulations of gait were generated and analyzed for(More)
Persons with cerebral palsy frequently walk with excessive knee flexion during terminal swing and stance. This gait abnormality is often attributed to "short" or "spastic" hamstrings that restrict knee extension, and is often treated by hamstrings lengthening surgery. At present, the outcomes of these procedures are inconsistent. This study examined whether(More)
Children with crouch gait frequently walk with improved knee extension during the terminal swing and stance phases following hamstrings lengthening surgery; however, the mechanisms responsible for these improvements are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that surgical lengthening enables the hamstrings of persons with cerebral palsy to operate at(More)
Intramuscular (IM) electrodes have been used safely and effectively for decades to activate paralyzed muscles in neuroprosthetic systems employing functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, the response to stimulation delivered by these and any type of electrode can be limited by a phenomenon known as spillover, in which the stimulus intended to(More)
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With the increasing popularity of robotic surgery, several studies in the literature have investigated automatically assessing skill measures based on motion and video data captured from these systems. A range of simulation environments for robotic surgery are now in development. Skill assessment in these environments has so far only focused on evaluating(More)
The ready-to-hand access of mobile devices creates the potential for practicing the novel approach of 'seamless learning', marked by continuity of the learning experience across different contexts. In a related note, the focus of Mobile-Assisted Language Learning is swinging to authentic or social mobile learning activities. In turn, we propose perspectives(More)
7 alpha-Bis (beta-chloroethyl)amino-methyl-6,14-endoethenotetrahydrooripavine (alpha-CAM) was found to bind to opioid receptors irreversibly and react directly with sulfhydryl (SH) groups in P2 preparations of rat brain. The P2 preparations were pretreated as follows: protection of the SH groups at the opioid receptor binding sites by morphine or etorphine,(More)