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The theory of allostatic load describes how the cumulative experience of emotional challenges and stressful events over the life course may take a significant physiological toll on multiple interrelated systems of the body. Various summary measures of these effects have been proposed in the literature, but few studies focus on systematically evaluating(More)
We investigate how biological markers of individual responses to stressful experiences are associated with profiles of physical and mental functioning in a national sample of middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese. Data come from a population-based sample of middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese in 2000. The data combine rich biological measures with self-reported(More)
BACKGROUND This study examines how changes in cognition over time are related to participation in social activities and the extent of social networks. METHODS Data are drawn from a population-based, longitudinal study that began in 1989 among elderly Taiwanese. An over-dispersed Poisson model is used to regress the number of failed cognitive tasks (0-5)(More)
The present study tested the hypothesis that the change in state negative affect (measured as perceived stress) after cognitive challenge moderates the relationship of trait anxiety and anger to vagal recovery from that challenge. Cardiac vagal control (assessed using heart rate variability) and respiratory rate were measured in a sample of 905 participants(More)
Despite the increasing evidence linking aspects of the social environment to a range of health outcomes, important questions remain concerning the precise mechanisms or pathways through which social circumstances exert their influence. Biological pathways are one important area of current research interest. Using data from the Social Environment and(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the effect of age on heart rate recovery (HRR) from cognitive challenge. BACKGROUND Aging is an independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. HRR from exercise is an established predictor of cardiac morbidity and mortality, and evidence suggests that HRR from cognitive challenge is predictive of cardiac(More)
OBJECTIVES To explore three questions: 1) Do chronic stressors predict physiological dysregulation? 2) Is that relationship moderated by characteristics of the individual and his or her social environment? and 3) Do perceived levels of stress mediate the relationship between stressors and dysregulation? METHODS Data come from a nationally representative,(More)
Orientation questions are readily incorporated into longitudinal population surveys, but their value as a screening tool for cognitive impairment is uncertain. We evaluated the screening value of four orientation-to-time items (TTO) from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) by determining their association with full-scale MMSE scores. Data collected(More)
BACKGROUND In light of substantial sex differences in health outcomes, researchers need to focus on disentangling the underlying biological and social determinants. The objective of this study is to determine whether two populations that differ in many cultural and social dimensions--Taiwan and the United States--also vary with regard to sex differentials(More)