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The market for neuropharmaceuticals is potentially one of the largest sectors of the global pharmaceutical market owing to the increase in average life expectancy and the fact that many neurological disorders have been largely refractory to pharmacotherapy. The brain is a delicate organ that can efficiently protect itself from harmful compounds and(More)
The present study was performed in an attempt to develop an in vitro integrated testing strategy (ITS) to evaluate drug-induced neurotoxicity. A number of endpoints were analyzed using two complementary brain cell culture models and an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model after single and repeated exposure treatments with selected drugs that covered the(More)
That promising neuroprotectants failed to demonstrate benefit against stroke highlights the great difficulties to translate preclinical pharmacological effects in clinical outcomes. Part of this hurdle implies the complex response to injury of the neurovascular unit increasing the cerebrovascular permeability at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB).(More)
NXY-059, a polar compound with limited transport across the blood-brain barrier, has demonstrated neuroprotection in several animal models of acute ischemic stroke but failed to confirm clinical benefit in the second phase III trial (SAINT-II). To improve the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for its neuroprotective action in preclinical models a(More)
The cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) is an important factor determining the functional state of blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelial cells but little is known on the effect of dynamic [Ca(2+)](i) changes on BBB function. We applied different agonists that trigger [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations and determined the involvement of connexin channels and(More)
Connexin hemichannels have a low open probability under normal conditions but open in response to various stimuli, forming a release pathway for small paracrine messengers. We investigated hemichannel-mediated ATP responses triggered by changes of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) in Cx43 expressing glioma cells and primary glial cells. The involvement of(More)
Situated between the circulation and the brain, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) protects the brain from circulating toxins while securing a specialized environment for neuro-glial signaling. BBB capillary endothelial cells exhibit low transcytotic activity and a tight, junctional network that, aided by the cytoskeleton, restricts paracellular permeability.(More)
There is a growing interest to use in vitro BBB cell assays in early safety assessment of compounds. By modifying a well-validated co-culture model of brain capillary endothelial and glial cells, developed by Dehouck et al. [Dehouck, M.P., Meresse, S., Delorme, P., Fruchart, J.C., Cecchelli, R., 1990. An easier, reproducible, and mass-production method to(More)
The combination of an in vitro BBB model (4d/24w) with a neuronal cell line (SH-SY5Y) provides a convenient approach to explore the importance of BBB permeability in neurotoxicity assessment of compounds. The toxicity of 16 compounds on SH-SY5Y cells was evaluated after 24h incubation with each compound and compared to their toxicity on SH-SY5Y after(More)
The human blood brain barrier (BBB) is a selective barrier formed by human brain endothelial cells (hBECs), which is important to ensure adequate neuronal function and protect the central nervous system (CNS) from disease. The development of human in vitro BBB models is thus of utmost importance for drug discovery programs related to CNS diseases. Here, we(More)