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Four protein-based genetic determinants or prions-[SWI(+)], [MCA], [OCT(+)], and [MOT3(+)]-are recent additions to the list of well-known Saccharomyces cerevisiae prions, [PSI(+)], [URE3], and [PIN(+)]. A rapid expansion of this list may indicate that many yeast proteins can convert into heritable prion forms and underscores a problem of prion input into(More)
This paper investigates communication between an informed expert and an uninformed principal via a strategic mediator. We demonstrate that, for any bias in the parties'preferences, there exists a strategic mediator that provides the highest expected payo¤ to the principal, as if the players had communicated through an optimal non-strategic mediator.
There are pronounced interindividual variations in drug metabolism, drug responses, and the incidence of adverse drug reactions. To a certain extent such variability can be explained by genetic factors, but epigenetic modifications, which are relatively scarcely described so far, also contribute. It is known that a novel class of drugs termed epidrugs(More)
Epigenomics is a rapidly growing field. New developments in epigenetics, such as the recently described modified cytosine variants (e.g., 5-hydroxymethylcytosine, 5hmC) and an arsenal of novel noncoding forms of RNA, can be applied in the area of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Epigenetic aberrations can affect drug treatment by modulating the(More)
Interindividual differences in liver functions such as protein synthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolism are influenced by epigenetic factors. The role of the epigenetic machinery in such processes has, however, been barely investigated. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a recently re-discovered epigenetic DNA modification that plays(More)
The CYP3A4 gene, encoding the major drug metabolizing enzyme in humans, exhibits a high interindividual variation in hepatic expression that can lead to interindividual differences in drug metabolism and associated adverse drug effects. Much of the interindividual variability in CYP3A4 remains unexplained. In the present study we investigated the role of(More)
DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic alterations involved in the control of gene expression. Bisulfite sequencing of genomic DNA is currently the only method to study DNA methylation patterns at single-nucleotide resolution. Hence, next-generation sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA is the method of choice to investigate DNA methylation(More)
The liver plays a central role in the maintenance of homeostasis and health in general. However, there is substantial inter-individual variation in hepatic gene expression, and although numerous genetic factors have been identified, less is known about the epigenetic factors. By analyzing the methylomes and transcriptomes of 14 fetal and 181 adult livers,(More)
This paper focuses on issues of allocating authority between an uninformed principal and an informed expert. We analyze the benefits of informational control—restricting the precision of the expert's information (without learning its content). In this case, the result of Dessein (2002) [8] that delegating decisions to a perfectly informed expert is better(More)