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Four protein-based genetic determinants or prions-[SWI(+)], [MCA], [OCT(+)], and [MOT3(+)]-are recent additions to the list of well-known Saccharomyces cerevisiae prions, [PSI(+)], [URE3], and [PIN(+)]. A rapid expansion of this list may indicate that many yeast proteins can convert into heritable prion forms and underscores a problem of prion input into(More)
We investigate strategic information transmission with communication error, or noise. Our main finding is that adding noise can improve welfare. With quadratic preferences and a uniform type distribution, welfare can be raised for almost every bias level by introducing a sufficiently small amount of noise. Furthermore, there exists a level of noise that(More)
The liver plays a central role in the maintenance of homeostasis and health in general. However, there is substantial inter-individual variation in hepatic gene expression, and although numerous genetic factors have been identified, less is known about the epigenetic factors. By analyzing the methylomes and transcriptomes of 14 fetal and 181 adult livers,(More)
DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic alterations involved in the control of gene expression. Bisulfite sequencing of genomic DNA is currently the only method to study DNA methylation patterns at single-nucleotide resolution. Hence, next-generation sequencing of bisulfite-converted DNA is the method of choice to investigate DNA methylation(More)
Interindividual differences in liver functions such as protein synthesis, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and drug metabolism are influenced by epigenetic factors. The role of the epigenetic machinery in such processes has, however, been barely investigated. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a recently re-discovered epigenetic DNA modification that plays(More)
The assessment of cell-free circulating DNA fragments, also known as a "liquid biopsy" of the patient's plasma, is an important source for the discovery and subsequent non-invasive monitoring of cancer and other pathological conditions. Although the nucleosome-guided fragmentation patterns of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) have not yet been studied in detail,(More)
Competing mechanism games involve contracting environments with multiple principals. This paper extends the static model with three or more agents to the dynamic setting , where agents' types evolve over time according to Markov processes. Agents observe contracts offered and actions taken, but principals observe only private messages from agents. Perhaps(More)