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Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading infectious cause of mental retardation and hearing loss in the developed world. In recent years, there has been an improved understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and long-term disabilities associated with CMV infection. In this review, current concepts regarding the pathogenesis of(More)
The nature of microglia fascinated many prominent researchers in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and in a classic treatise in 1932, Pio del Rio-Hortega formulated a number of concepts regarding the function of these resident macrophages of the brain parenchyma that remain relevant to this day. However, a renaissance of interest in microglia occurred(More)
In recent years, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as a major cause of encephalitis in the United States. However, the neuropathogenesis of this flavivirus is poorly understood. In the present study, the authors used primary human brain cell cultures to investigate two neuropathogenic features: viral replication and induction of cytokines. Although neurons(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of congenital brain disease, and its neuropathogenesis may be related to viral infection of rapidly dividing, susceptible neural precursor cells (NPCs). In the present study, we evaluated the susceptibility of human fetal brain-derived NPCs (nestin(+), A2B5(+), CD133(+)) to infection with CMV. Data derived from these(More)
Neural precursor cells (NPCs) are self-renewing, multipotent progenitors that give rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Fetal NPCs have attracted attention for their potential use in studying normal CNS development. Several studies of rodent neural progenitors have suggested that chemokines and their(More)
Long-term neurological sequela is common among herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) survivors. Animal models for HSE are used to investigate mechanisms of acute disease, but little has been done to model chronic manifestations of HSE. The current study presents a detailed, systematic analysis of chronic neuropathology, including characterization of topography(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading transmittable cause of congenital brain abnormalities in children and infection results in fatal ventriculoencephalitis in advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Pathology associated with CMV brain infection is seen predominantly in the periventricular region, an area known to harbor neural stem(More)
Although production of reactive nitrogen and reactive oxygen species (RNS and ROS) is a component of innate defense against viral infection, their overproduction in the brain may also lead to deleterious consequences. To investigate potential immunopathologic roles of oxidative stress during herpes encephalitis, the authors examined the expression kinetics(More)
The brain's intrinsic immune system consists of glial cells that produce cytokines and chemokines in response to stimulation with cytomegalovirus (CMV). The present experiments were undertaken to determine whether this intrinsic glial cell response alone is sufficient to control CMV infection of the central nervous system (CNS) or whether effector cells(More)
Interleukin (IL)-10 deficiency results in highly elevated levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma, as well as the IFN-gamma-inducible chemokines CXCL9 and CXCL10 within murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV)-infected brains. To test the hypothesis that these elevated chemokine levels would result in enhanced brain infiltration, we compared immune cell infiltration in(More)