Maxim C-J Cheeran

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The nature of microglia fascinated many prominent researchers in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and in a classic treatise in 1932, Pio del Rio-Hortega formulated a number of concepts regarding the function of these resident macrophages of the brain parenchyma that remain relevant to this day. However, a renaissance of interest in microglia occurred(More)
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading infectious cause of mental retardation and hearing loss in the developed world. In recent years, there has been an improved understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and long-term disabilities associated with CMV infection. In this review, current concepts regarding the pathogenesis of(More)
Cytokine (TNF-alpha/beta, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-18, IL-10, and IFN-alpha/beta/gamma) and chemokine (IL-8, IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1alpha/beta, and RANTES) production during herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 infection of human brain cells was examined. Primary astrocytes as well as neurons were found to support HSV replication, but neither of these fully permissive cell(More)
Experimental murine herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 brain infection stimulates microglial cell-driven proinflammatory chemokine production which precedes the presence of brain-infiltrating systemic immune cells. In the present study, we investigated the phenotypes and infiltration kinetics of leukocyte trafficking into HSV-infected murine brains. Using(More)
Neural precursor cells (NPCs) are self-renewing, multipotent progenitors that give rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Fetal NPCs have attracted attention for their potential use in studying normal CNS development. Several studies of rodent neural progenitors have suggested that chemokines and their(More)
Long-term neurological sequela is common among herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) survivors. Animal models for HSE are used to investigate mechanisms of acute disease, but little has been done to model chronic manifestations of HSE. The current study presents a detailed, systematic analysis of chronic neuropathology, including characterization of topography(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of congenital brain disease, and its neuropathogenesis may be related to viral infection of rapidly dividing, susceptible neural precursor cells (NPCs). In the present study, we evaluated the susceptibility of human fetal brain-derived NPCs (nestin(+), A2B5(+), CD133(+)) to infection with CMV. Data derived from these(More)
Glial cells can respond to herpesvirus infections through the production of cytokines and chemokines. Although specific interactions between resident glia and lymphocytes that infiltrate the infected brain remain to be defined, the presence of T cell chemotactic signals in microglial cell supernatants following infection with cytomegalovirus or herpes(More)
Maternal use of cocaine during pregnancy is associated with sustained morphological brain abnormalities and sustained cognitive deficits in the offspring. Here, we use a cell culture model of highly enriched human fetal brain-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs) to assess the effects of cocaine treatment on their proliferation, migration, and(More)
OBJECTIVES To characterize replication patterns and cytopathic effects during human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of brain cells. DESIGN Primary human mixed glial/neuronal cells, as well as purified microglial, astroglial, and enriched neuronal cell cultures, were infected with HCMV strains AD169 and RC256 to determine the ability of the different(More)