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The nature of microglia fascinated many prominent researchers in the 19th and early 20th centuries, and in a classic treatise in 1932, Pio del Rio-Hortega formulated a number of concepts regarding the function of these resident macrophages of the brain parenchyma that remain relevant to this day. However, a renaissance of interest in microglia occurred(More)
Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading infectious cause of mental retardation and hearing loss in the developed world. In recent years, there has been an improved understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and long-term disabilities associated with CMV infection. In this review, current concepts regarding the pathogenesis of(More)
Neural precursor cells (NPCs) are self-renewing, multipotent progenitors that give rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system (CNS). Fetal NPCs have attracted attention for their potential use in studying normal CNS development. Several studies of rodent neural progenitors have suggested that chemokines and their(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a major cause of congenital brain disease, and its neuropathogenesis may be related to viral infection of rapidly dividing, susceptible neural precursor cells (NPCs). In the present study, we evaluated the susceptibility of human fetal brain-derived NPCs (nestin(+), A2B5(+), CD133(+)) to infection with CMV. Data derived from these(More)
In recent years, West Nile virus (WNV) has emerged as a major cause of encephalitis in the United States. However, the neuropathogenesis of this flavivirus is poorly understood. In the present study, the authors used primary human brain cell cultures to investigate two neuropathogenic features: viral replication and induction of cytokines. Although neurons(More)
Experimental murine herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 brain infection stimulates microglial cell-driven proinflammatory chemokine production which precedes the presence of brain-infiltrating systemic immune cells. In the present study, we investigated the phenotypes and infiltration kinetics of leukocyte trafficking into HSV-infected murine brains. Using(More)
Glial cells orchestrate immunocyte recruitment to focal areas of viral infection within the brain and synchronize immune cell functions through a regulated network of cytokines and chemokines. Since recruitment of T lymphocytes plays a critical role in resolving cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, we investigated the production of a T-cell chemoattractant,(More)
Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) brain infection induces a transient increase in chemokine production, which precedes the infiltration of CD3(+) lymphocytes. In this study, we hypothesized that an absence of anti-inflammatory cytokines would result in sustained proinflammatory neuroimmune responses. Direct intracerebroventricular injection of MCMV into IL-10(More)
Infection of the central nervous system (CNS) with herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 initiates a rapidly progressive, necrotizing, and fatal encephalitis in humans. Even with the advent of antiviral therapy, effective treatments for HSV-1 brain infection are limited because the cause of the resulting neuropathogenesis is not completely understood. We previously(More)
Glial cells can respond to herpesvirus infections through the production of cytokines and chemokines. Although specific interactions between resident glia and lymphocytes that infiltrate the infected brain remain to be defined, the presence of T cell chemotactic signals in microglial cell supernatants following infection with cytomegalovirus or herpes(More)