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Evolution can be regarded as the exploration of genetic or morphological state space by populations. In traditional models of population and quantitative genetics, the state space can be formally represented as a configuration space with clearly defined concepts of neighborhood and distance, defined by the action of variational operators such as mutation(More)
It was shown by Gillespie [1974. Am. Nat. 108, 145–151], that if two genotypes produce the same average number of offspring on but have a different variance associated within each generation, the genotype with a lower variance will have a higher effective fitness. Specifically, the effective fitness is {ei65-1}, where w is the mean fitness, {ei65-2} is the(More)
For two genotypes that have the same mean number of offspring but differ in the variance in offspring number, naturalselection will favor the genotype with lower variance. In such cases, the average growth rate is not sufficient as a measure of fitness or as a predictor of fixation probability. However, the effect of variance in offspring number on the(More)
It has been shown that differences in fecundity variance can influence the probability of invasion of a genotype in a population; i.e., a genotype with lower variance in offspring number can be favored in finite populations even if it has a somewhat lower mean fitness than a competitor. In this article, Gillespie's results are extended to population genetic(More)
Within hybrid zones that are maintained by a balance between selection and dispersal, linkage disequilibrium is generated by the mixing of divergent populations. This linkage disequilibrium causes selection on each locus to act on all other loci, thereby steepening clines, and generating a barrier to gene flow. Diffusion models predict simple relations(More)
The topological features of genotype spaces given a genetic operator have a substantial impact on the course of evolution. We explore the structure of the recombination spaces arising from four different unequal crossover models in the context of pretopological spaces. We show that all four models are incompatible with metric distance measures due to a lack(More)
Analysis of multilocus evolution is usually intractable for more than n approximately 10 genes, because the frequencies of very large numbers of genotypes must be followed. An exact analysis of up to n approximately 100 loci is feasible for a symmetrical model, in which a set of unlinked loci segregate for two alleles (labeled "0" and "1") with(More)
We show that the phenotypic hypergeometric model of a quantitative trait can exactly describe both haploid and diploid populations. The condition necessary for this is equiprobability of genotypes within each phenotype. This requires equal allele frequencies across the loci, which may be the case when the population is under disruptive selection.
In this paper we present general results on aggregation of variables, specifically as it applies to decomposable (partitionable) dynamical systems. We show that a particular class of transition matrices, namely, those satisfying an equitable partitioning property, are aggregable under appropriate decomposition operators. It is also shown that equitable(More)
The rate of evolutionary change associated with a character determines its utility for the reconstruction of phylogenetic history. For a given age of lineage splits, we examine the information content of a character to assess the magnitude and range of an optimal rate of substitution. On the one hand an optimal transition rate must provide sufficiently many(More)