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Evolution can be regarded as the exploration of genetic or morphological state space by populations. In traditional models of population and quantitative genetics, the state space can be formally represented as a configuration space with clearly defined concepts of neighborhood and distance, defined by the action of variational operators such as mutation(More)
We present a model of gene duplication by means of unequal crossover (UCO) where the probability of any given pairing between homologous sequences scales as a penalty factor pz < or = 1, with z the number of mismatches due to asymmetric sequence alignment. From this general representation, we derive several limiting case models of UCO, some of which have(More)
We show that the phenotypic hypergeometric model of a quantitative trait can exactly describe both haploid and diploid populations. The condition necessary for this is equiprobability of genotypes within each phenotype. This requires equal allele frequencies across the loci, which may be the case when the population is under disruptive selection.
The topological features of genotype spaces given a genetic operator have a substantial impact on the course of evolution. We explore the structure of the recombination spaces arising from four different unequal crossover models in the context of pretopological spaces. We show that all four models are incompatible with metric distance measures due to a lack(More)
The rate of evolutionary change associated with a character determines its utility for the reconstruction of phylogenetic history. For a given age of lineage splits, we examine the information content of a character to assess the magnitude and range of an optimal rate of substitution. On the one hand an optimal transition rate must provide sufficiently many(More)
It was shown by Gillespie [1974. Am. Nat. 108, 145–151], that if two genotypes produce the same average number of offspring on but have a different variance associated within each generation, the genotype with a lower variance will have a higher effective fitness. Specifically, the effective fitness is {ei65-1}, where w is the mean fitness, {ei65-2} is the(More)
For two genotypes that have the same mean number of offspring but differ in the variance in offspring number, naturalselection will favor the genotype with lower variance. In such cases, the average growth rate is not sufficient as a measure of fitness or as a predictor of fixation probability. However, the effect of variance in offspring number on the(More)
In this paper we use eQTL mapping to identify associations between gene dysregulation and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotypes in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). A set of 532,954 SNPs was evaluated as predictors of the expression levels of 22,279 expression probes. We identified SNPs associated with fold change in expression level rather than raw(More)