Max Salfinger

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In a large multicenter study involving six major study sites in the United States, Canada, and Europe, the susceptibilities of 272 Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to classical second-line antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs (capreomycin, cycloserine, ethionamide, and kanamycin) and newer compounds (amikacin, clofazimine, ofloxacin, and rifabutin) were(More)
Rifampin is a cornerstone of modern antituberculosis therapy. However, rifampin's half-life of 3 h is believed to limit its utility for intermittent therapy, so new congeners with long half-lives are being developed. Using an in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of tuberculosis, we examined the relationships between rifampin exposure, microbial(More)
The MICs of pyrazinamide (PZA) were determined for Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultivated under different pH conditions in 7H12 liquid medium. Mycobacterial growth was monitored by the radiometric method (BACTEC system; Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.). We observed a predictable eightfold difference between the MICs determined at pH 5.5 and those(More)
In performing radiometric susceptibility testing on over 2,000 patient isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis during the past 6 years, we found that resistance to 7.5 microg/ml ethambutol (EMB) occurred only in isolates that are also resistant to 0.4 microg/ml isoniazid (INH). Using 157 selected isolates in the present study, we performed radiometric and(More)
Although the virulences and host ranges differ among members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (TBC; M. tuberculosis, M. africanum, M. canettii, M. microti, M. bovis, and M. bovis BCG), commercially available molecular assays cannot differentiate these organisms because of the genetic identities of their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Comparative genomic(More)
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have emerged worldwide. In many countries and regions, these resistant strains constitute a serious threat to the efficacy of tuberculosis control programs. An important element in gaining control of this epidemic is developing an understanding of the molecular basis of resistance to the most(More)
Six cases of mycobacteriosis due to Mycobacterium genavense in three budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus), one orange-winged amazon (Amazona amazonica), one flycatcher (Cyanoptila cyanomelana), and one zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) are discussed. Gross lesions associated with the infection included a high degree of muscular wasting (five cases),(More)
The inhA and kasA genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have each been proposed to encode the primary target of the antibiotic isoniazid (INH). Previous studies investigating whether overexpressed inhA or kasA could confer resistance to INH yielded disparate results. In this work, multicopy plasmids expressing either inhA or kasA genes were transformed into(More)
The INNO-LiPA Rif.TB assay for the identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains and the detection of rifampin (RIF) resistance has been evaluated with 360 smear-positive respiratory specimens from an area of high incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The sensitivity when compared to conventional identification/culture(More)
Recent surveys in the USA show that many mycobacteriology laboratories continue to use less-than-optimum culture and susceptibility testing methods. This seems to be true for European countries as well. The past few years have brought significant changes to the clinical tuberculosis laboratory. High-performance liquid chromatography and direct detection of(More)