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The nuclear pore complex spans the nuclear envelope and functions as a macromolecular transporter in the ATP-dependent process of nucleocytoplasmic transport. In this report, we present three dimensional (3D) structures for both membrane-associated and detergent-extracted Xenopus NPCs, imaged in frozen buffers by cryo-electron microscopy. A comparison of(More)
Isolated skeletal muscle ryanodine receptors (RyRs) complexed with the modulatory ligands, calmodulin (CaM) or 12-kDa FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), have been characterized by electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional reconstruction. RyRs are composed of 4 large subunits (molecular mass 565 kDa) that assemble to form a 4-fold symmetric complex that,(More)
Cytoplasmic dynein is a microtubule-based mechanochemical protein that plays an essential role in cell division, vesicle transport, and cytoplasmic membrane organization. As a molecular motor, dynein utilizes an ATP hydrolysis mechanism to bind and release microtubules and to undergo conformational changes that result in a net displacement towards the(More)
The ribosome is formed by assembly of proteins and nucleic acids, and synthesizes proteins according to genetic instructions in all organisms. Many of the biochemical steps of this fundamental process are known, but a detailed understanding requires a well-defined structural model of the ribosome. Electron microscopy combined with image reconstruction of(More)
The calcium release channel (CRC) from skeletal muscle is an unusually large tetrameric ion channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and it is a major component of the triad junction, the site of excitation contraction coupling. The three-dimensional architecture of the CRC was determined from a random conical tilt series of images extracted from electron(More)
Pattern recognition methods based on the theory of fuzzy sets are tested for their ability to classify electron microscopy images of biological specimens. The concept of fuzzy sets was chosen for its ability to represent classes of objects that are vaguely described from the measured data. A number of partitional clustering algorithms and an extensive set(More)
We have applied a computer-based tomographic technique to reconstruct the three-dimensional ultrastructure of newt lung cilia. Epon-embedded samples were cut into 0.25-micron-thick sections that were imaged at 1 MV with a high-voltage electron microscope. For the reconstruction shown, a tilt series of 53 micrographs was taken at tilt angles between -54(More)
Electron micrographs show the small (30 S) subunit of Escherichia coli ribosomes lying in a wide range of positions on the specimen support, related by rotation principally around the long axis of the particle. Through correspondence analysis, a multivariate statistical method that distinguishes the major factors accounting for interimage variance, the(More)
This study is concerned with the characterization of the morphology of the calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) from fast-twitch skeletal muscle, which is involved in excitation-contraction coupling. We have previously purified the ryanodine receptor and found it to be equivalent to the feet structures, which are involved, in situ, in the(More)