Max Nieuwdorp

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BACKGROUND Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection is difficult to treat, and failure rates for antibiotic therapy are high. We studied the effect of duodenal infusion of donor feces in patients with recurrent C. difficile infection. METHODS We randomly assigned patients to receive one of three therapies: an initial vancomycin regimen (500 mg orally(More)
Alterations in intestinal microbiota are associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We studied the effects of infusing intestinal microbiota from lean donors to male recipients with metabolic syndrome on the recipients' microbiota composition and glucose metabolism. Subjects were assigned randomly to groups that were given small intestinal infusions of(More)
Endothelial glycocalyx perturbation contributes to increased vascular permeability. In the present study we set out to evaluate whether: (1) glycocalyx is perturbed in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and (2) oral glycocalyx precursor treatment improves glycocalyx properties. Male participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 10) and controls (n = 10)(More)
Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are attributed to a combination of genetic susceptibility and lifestyle factors. Their increasing prevalence necessitates further studies on modifiable causative factors and novel treatment options. The gut microbiota has emerged as an important contributor to the obesity--and T2DM--epidemic proposed to act by(More)
Hyperglycemia is associated with increased susceptibility to atherothrombotic stimuli. The glycocalyx, a layer of proteoglycans covering the endothelium, is involved in the protective capacity of the vessel wall. We therefore evaluated whether hyperglycemia affects the glycocalyx, thereby increasing vascular vulnerability. The systemic glycocalyx volume was(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Although cardiovascular prevention has improved substantially, we still face the challenge of finding new targets to reduce the sequelae of atherosclerosis further. In this regard, optimizing the vasculoprotective effects of the vessel wall itself warrants intensive research. In particular, the endothelial glycocalyx, consisting of(More)
Chronic hyperglycemia underlies microvascular complications in patients with type 1 diabetes. The mechanisms leading to these vascular complications are not fully understood. Recently, we observed that acute hyperglycemia results in endothelial glycocalyx damage. To establish whether glycocalyx is associated with microvascular damage, we performed(More)
The endothelial glycocalyx exerts a wide array of vasculoprotective effects via inhibition of coagulation and leucocyte adhesion, by contributing to the vascular permeability barrier and by mediating shear stress-induced NO release. In this review, we will focus on the relationship between fluid shear stress and the endothelial glycocalyx. We will address(More)
The worldwide prevalence of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) continues to rise at an alarming pace. Recently the potential role of the gut microbiome in these metabolic disorders has been identified. Obesity is associated with changes in the composition of the intestinal microbiota, and the obese microbiome seems to be more efficient in(More)
OBJECTIVE Inflammatory stimuli profoundly increase the vulnerability of the vessel wall to atherogenesis. The endothelial glycocalyx, a layer of glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans covering the luminal side of the vasculature, has recently emerged as an orchestrator of vascular homeostasis. In the present study, we investigated whether endotoxin-induced(More)