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Advances in computational linguistics and discourse processing have made it possible to automate many language- and text-processing mechanisms. We have developed a computer tool called Coh-Metrix, which analyzes texts on over 200 measures of cohesion, language, and readability. Its modules use lexicons, part-of-speech classifiers, syntactic parsers,(More)
Recent theories of cognition have argued that embodied experience is important for conceptual processing. Embodiment can be contrasted with linguistic factors such as the typical order in which words appear in language. Here, we report four experiments that investigated the conditions under which embodiment and linguistic factors determine performance.(More)
SUMMARY Conversational agents are becoming more widespread in computer technologies but there has been little research in how humans interact with them. Two eye tracking studies investigated how humans distribute eye gaze towards conversational agents in complex tutoring systems. In Study 1, participants interacted with the single-agent tutoring system(More)
AutoTutor is a learning environment that tutors students by holding a conversation in natural language. AutoTutor has been developed for Newtonian qualitative physics and computer literacy. Its design was inspired by explanation-based constructivist theories of learning, intelligent tutoring systems that adaptively respond to student knowledge, and(More)
A variety of theoretical frameworks predict the resemblance of behaviors between two people engaged in communication, in the form of coordination, mimicry, or alignment. However, little is known about the time course of the behavior matching, even though there is evidence that dyads synchronize oscillatory motions (e.g., postural sway). This study examined(More)
Previous studies have shown that object properties are processed faster when they follow properties from the same perceptual modality than properties from different modalities. These findings suggest that language activates sensorimotor processes, which, according to those studies, can only be explained by a modal account of cognition. The current paper(More)
This paper describes classification of typed student utterances within AutoTutor, an intelligent tutoring system. Utterances are classified to one of 18 categories, including 16 question categories. The classifier presented uses part of speech tagging, cascaded finite state transducers, and simple disambiguation rules. Shallow NLP is well suited to the(More)
This paper investigates the variation in cohesion across written and spoken registers. The same method and corpora were used as in Biber's (1988) study on linguistic variation across speech and writing; however instead of focusing on 67 linguistic features that primarily operate at the word level, we compared 236 language and cohesion features at the(More)