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We have developed and successfully used the first microprocessor-controlled monitors for collection of data on depth, heart rate, and body temperature of one fetal and five adult male freely swimming Weddell seals. Adult seals almost invariably experienced a prompt bradycardia at the start of each dive, and the mean heart rate during diving was(More)
Arterial blood gas tensions, pH, and hemoglobin concentrations were measured in four free-diving Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddelli. A microprocessor-controlled sampling system enabled us to obtain 24 single and 31 serial aortic blood samples. The arterial O2 tension (PaO2) at rest [78 +/- 13 (SD) Torr] increased with diving compression to a maximum(More)
Arterial blood nitrogen tensions of free-diving Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddelli) were measured by attaching a microprocessor-controlled blood pump and drawing samples at depth to determine how these marine mammals dive to great depths and ascend rapidly without developing decompression sickness. Forty-seven samples of arterial blood were obtained from(More)
Tuna appear able to maintain their muscles at 5-10 degrees C above ambient by balancing heat produced in situ and conserved by a counter-current heat exchanger with heat lost to the sea. Metabolite profiles under three different activity states (rest, burst swimming, and steady state swimming during feeding frenzies at sea) were used to identify which(More)
Utilizing a microprocessor-controlled peristaltic withdrawal pump, arterial blood samples were obtained from Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddelli) while diving voluntarily under the sea ice at McMurdo Sound, Antarctica. Plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, free fatty acids, urea, and amino acids were determined in seals at various times during rest,(More)
As part of an investigation into the generation of muscle heat in the tuna, the histochemistry and ultrastructure of the myotomal muscles were studied. Both red and white fibres are differentiated into two forms. The two forms of red muscle are very similar except for differential electron absorbance and different kinds of glycogen granules stored. In both(More)
The metabolic potentials of the heart, brain, white muscle, and liver in the African lungfish were estimated by enzymatic data. Metabolic effects of a 12-h submergence were monitored using metabolite measurements. Heart was the most oxidative tissue but also showed the greatest anaerobic potential. The brain displayed relatively low oxidative capabilities.(More)
Two lizards--a skink capable of fast short dashes, and a chameleon, incapable of fast movement--have been studied to determine the degree of metabolic diversity that exists in this group of reptiles. Oxygen uptake measurements, skeletal muscle histochemistry, and enzyme and metabolite levels in cardiac and skeletal muscles reveal that the skink has a higher(More)
In the shipjack, Euthynnus pelamis, white muscle appears to possess a powerful anaerobic capacity as well as a significant carbohydrate based aerobic potential. Lactate dehydrogenase occurs at higher activities than found thus far anywhere else in nature and clearly functions in anaerobic glycolysis. Alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase also occurs in(More)
AIM Cerebral palsy (CP) is defined as a primary disorder of posture and movement; however, approximately 45% of children with CP also have an intellectual impairment. Prevalence estimates are limited by a lack of guidelines for intelligence testing. This systematic review aims to identify and examine intelligence assessments for children with CP. METHOD(More)