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To diagnose symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) using peripheral blood rather than tissue aspirates, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was developed for which the detection limit is 1 Leishmania-infected macrophage in 8 mL of blood. For Indian, Kenyan, or Brazilian patients with parasitologically confirmed kala-azar, 57 of 63 cases(More)
A female Neotoma micropus infected with Leishmania was collected in Zavala County, Texas, on 15 January 1990. The infection was limited to lesions at the bases of the ears, and the parasite grew readily in Schneider's Drosophila medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum. Isozyme analysis determined the parasite to be Leishmania mexicana.
Ninety military patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia were randomly allocated to 3 treatment regimens of parenteral aminosidine sulphate: (i) 12 mg aminosidine base/kg/d for 7 d, (ii) 12 mg/kg/d for 14 d, and (iii) 18 mg/kg/d for 14 d. With the 89 evaluable patients, the cure rates 12 months after the end of treatment were 10%, 45%, and 50%,(More)
We previously found that 2 mg of pentamidine isethionate/kg, administered every other day in seven injections, was 95% curative for Colombian cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, 17% of the patients had to prematurely terminate therapy due to drug toxicity and another 30% had mild-to-moderate toxic clinical reactions. In this report, we show that the same(More)
Currently available primary screens for selection of candidate antileishmanial compounds are not ideal. The choices include screens that are designed to closely reflect the situation in vivo but are labor-intensive and expensive (intracellular amastigotes and animal models) and screens that are designed to facilitate rapid testing of a large number of drugs(More)
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is presently treated with 20 days of parenteral therapy with a frequently toxic drug (antimony). Topical formulations of paromomycin (15%) plus methylbenzethonium chloride (MBCL, 12%) or plus urea (10%) in soft white paraffin have been tested for Old and New World disease in humans. We compared the efficacy of a new topical(More)
We report that in vitro sensitivity to pentavalent antimony (Sb5) of 35 Leishmania isolates as determined by the semiautomated microdilution technique (SAMT) showed an 89% and 86% correlation with clinical outcome after Pentostam and Glucantime treatment, respectively. These results suggest that in over 85% of the cases, the clinical outcome of treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Hundreds of thousands of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis occur each year worldwide. Available therapies are parenteral, moderately toxic, and costly. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of and tolerance for oral allopurinol as monotherapy for cutaneous leishmaniasis. DESIGN Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING Outpatient clinics in 11(More)
The efficacy and toxicity of sodium stibogluconate (SSG) at a dosage of 20 mg/(kg.d) for either 20 days (for cutaneous disease) or 28 days (for visceral, mucosal, or viscerotropic disease) in the treatment of leishmaniasis is reported. Ninety-six U.S. Department of Defense health care beneficiaries with parasitologically confirmed leishmaniasis were(More)
Leishmaniasis is a major tropical disease for which current chemotherapies, pentavalent antimonials, are inadequate and cause severe side effects. It has been reported that trifluralin, a microtubule-disrupting herbicide, is inhibitory to Leishmania amazonensis. In this study, the in vitro effect of trifluralin on different species of trypanosomatid(More)