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The immune system responds to pathogens by a variety of pattern recognition molecules such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which promote recognition of dangerous foreign pathogens. However, recent evidence indicates that normal intestinal microbiota might also positively influence immune responses, and protect against the development of inflammatory(More)
Morphine is one of the most prescribed and effective drugs used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions. In addition to its central effects, morphine can also produce peripheral analgesia. However, the mechanisms underlying this peripheral action of morphine have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the peripheral antinociceptive(More)
Twitter is a unique social media channel, in the sense that users discuss and talk about the most diverse topics, including their health conditions. In this paper we analyze how Dengue epidemic is reflected on Twitter and to what extent that information can be used for the sake of surveillance. Dengue is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that is a leading(More)
The interaction between a microorganism and a potential host may modify each other in multiple ways. Because of their central role in controlling leukocyte trafficking and activation, chemokines may be essential in defining these interactions. Here, we describe potential uses of intravital microscopy to define the role of chemokines and their receptors in(More)
The interplay between the immune and neuroendocrine systems is intense, with the cross-talk between these two systems increasing during stress circumstances. Stress events culminate with hormonal pathway activation elevating the plasma levels of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. The majority of the works evaluating the effects of stress hormones on immune(More)
Severe human scorpion envenoming is characterised by instability of several physiological systems and death. These manifestations are explained by the ability of the venom toxins to activate sodium channels in nerve terminals with the subsequent release of neurotransmitters, specially acetylcholine and noradrenaline. However, there is evidence to suggest(More)
BACKGROUND Kinins are important mediators of inflammation and act through stimulation of two receptor subtypes, B1 and B2. Leukocyte infiltration contributes to the pathogenesis of autoimmune inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS), occurring not only in multiple sclerosis (MS) but also in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). We have(More)
Bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with a significant mortality rate and persisting neurologic sequelae, including sensory-motor deficits, seizures, and impairment of learning and memory. The presence of proliferating bacteria within the subarachnoid and ventricular space compartments triggers an intense inflammatory host(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models multiple sclerosis (MS) and is characterized by marked mononuclear cell influx in the brain. Several studies have demonstrated a role for chemokines during EAE. It remains to be determined whether these mediators modulate EAE primarily by mediating leukocyte influx into the CNS or by modifying(More)
BACKGROUND Neuro-inflammation, triggered by beta-amyloid peptide, is implicated as one of the primary contributors to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis, and several cytokines were identified as key instigating factors. METHODS To reveal the inflammatory response of lymphocytes to the neuro-toxic beta-amyloid peptide, we evaluated the release of(More)