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The immune system responds to pathogens by a variety of pattern recognition molecules such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which promote recognition of dangerous foreign pathogens. However, recent evidence indicates that normal intestinal microbiota might also positively influence immune responses, and protect against the development of inflammatory(More)
The taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of Trypanosoma vivax are controversial. It is generally suggested that South American, and East and West African isolates could be classified as subspecies or species allied to T. vivax. This is the first phylogenetic study to compare South American isolates (Brazil and Venezuela) with West/East African T. vivax(More)
SSU ribosomal sequences of trypanosomes from Brazilian cattle and water buffalo were used to infer phylogenetic relationships between non-pathogenic T. theileri and allied species parasitic in artiodactyls. T. theileri trypanosomes from distinct geographical regions in Brazil and from other countries were tightly clustered into the 'clade T. theileri'(More)
BACKGROUND Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) is a complex neutrophil-mediated syndrome. Adenosine-triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are involved in neutrophil migration in vivo. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of glibenclamide, a K(ATP) channel blocker, in renal I/R injury in rats. METHODS The left kidney of(More)
An outbreak of trypanosomiasis by Trypanosoma vivax is reported in the semiarid of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil from May to August 2002. Sixty-four cows out of 130 were affected; 11 died and the other recovered after treatment with diminazene aceturate. Affected animals had fever, anemia, weight loss, hypoglycemia, increased serum levels of aspartate(More)
Morphine is one of the most prescribed and effective drugs used for the treatment of acute and chronic pain conditions. In addition to its central effects, morphine can also produce peripheral analgesia. However, the mechanisms underlying this peripheral action of morphine have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we show that the peripheral antinociceptive(More)
Phosphodiesterase type 4 (PDE4) plays a major role in modulating the activity of virtually all cells involved in the inflammatory process. Inhibitors of this enzyme family display impressive anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying effects in a variety of experimental models. In this review, Mauro Teixeira, Robert Gristwood, Nicola Cooper and Paul Hellewell(More)
The inflammatory response that follows the infection with Trypanosoma cruzi is essential for host resistance to infection but is also responsible for the diverse pathology observed in Chagas disease. Here, we examine the stimuli and mechanisms underlying chemokine production following infection in vitro and in vivo, and the ability of chemokines to(More)
Type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13) play a pivotal role in helminthic infection and allergic disorders. CD4(+) T cells which produce type 2 cytokines can be generated via IL-4-dependent and -independent pathways. Although the IL-4-dependent pathway is well documented, factors that drive IL-4-independent Th2 cell differentiation remain obscure. We(More)
BACKGROUND The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of postinjury multiple organ failure. The ACS is defined as intra-abdominal hypertension causing adverse physiologic response. This study was designed to determine the effects of IAH on the production of interleukin-1b (IL-1beta), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis(More)