Mauro Di Pilato

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After Edward Jenner established human vaccination over 200 years ago, attenuated poxviruses became key players to contain the deadliest virus of its own family: Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox. Cowpox virus (CPXV) and horsepox virus (HSPV) were extensively used to this end, passaged in cattle and humans until the appearance of vaccinia(More)
Here we describe the design and strength of a new synthetic late-early optimized (LEO) vaccinia virus (VACV) promoter used as a transcriptional regulator of GFP expression during modified vaccinia Ankara infection. In contrast to the described synthetic VACV promoter (pS), LEO induced significantly higher levels of GFP expression in vitro within the first(More)
Self/non-self discrimination characterizes immunity and allows responses against pathogens but not self-antigens. Understanding the principles that govern this process is essential for designing autoimmunity treatments. p21 is thought to attenuate autoreactivity by limiting T cell expansion. Here, we provide direct evidence for a p21 role in controlling(More)
Vaccinia viruses (VACVs) with distinct early promoters have been developed to enhance antigen expression and improve antigen-specific CD8 T-cell responses. It has not been demonstrated how the length of the spacer between the coding region of the gene and its regulatory early promoter motif influences antigen expression, and whether the timing of gene(More)
Neutrophils are antigen-transporting cells that generate vaccinia virus (VACV)-specific T-cell responses, yet how VACV modulates neutrophil recruitment and its significance in the immune response are unknown. We generated an attenuated VACV strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens but lacks three specific viral genes (A52R, K7R, and B15R). We found that(More)
Viruses have developed strategies to counteract signalling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) that are involved in the detection of viruses and induction of proinflammatory cytokines and IFNs. Vaccinia virus (VACV) encodes A46 protein which disrupts TLR signalling by interfering with TLR: adaptor interactions. Since the innate immune response to viruses is(More)
Poxviruses use a complex strategy to escape immune control, by expressing immunomodulatory proteins that could limit their use as vaccine vectors. To test the role of poxvirus NF-κB pathway inhibitors A52, B15, and K7 in immunity, we deleted their genes in an NYVAC (New York vaccinia virus) strain that expresses HIV-1 clade C antigens. After infection of(More)
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