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BACKGROUND Accurate estimates of the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in a Western European population are lacking and are of particular interest in settings where the usual pattern of alcohol consumption is thought to be daily drinking with meals. To address these issues, an(More)
An isocratic HPLC procedure for the assessment of thiamine (T), thiamine monophosphate (TMP) and thiamine diphosphate (TDP) in human erythrocytes is described. Several aspects of the procedure make it suitable for both clinical and research purposes: limits of detection and quantification of 1 and 2.5 nmol/l, respectively, recovery of 102% on average (range(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic alcohol abuse is a risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures, whose pathogenesis is still unclear. We investigated the influence of alcoholism and other risk factors on calcium and skeletal metabolism, bone mineral density (BMD), and fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS In 51 chronic male alcoholics without liver failure and 31 healthy(More)
Ethanol exposure during pregnancy is one of the major causes of mental retardation in western countries by inducing fetal-alcohol-like-syndromes. Red wine is known to contain ethanol but also compounds with putative antioxidant properties. It has also been shown that nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are severely(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the population-based epidemiology of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and other fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) in towns representative of the general population of central Italy. METHODS Slightly revised U.S. Institute of Medicine diagnostic methods were used among children in randomly-selected schools near Rome. Consented(More)
OBJECTIVE Nutritional disorders in alcoholics remain one of the most relevant medical problems in Western societies. As ethanol can supply >50% of the dietary energy in alcoholics, body composition alterations may easily occur. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of chronic alcohol consumption on body composition in alcoholics(More)
BACKGROUND Children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) display many problems ranging from deficits in intelligence to behavioral difficulties. Thus, many studies have aimed at defining the neuropsychological characteristics of children with FASD. The current article describes the neuropsychological characteristics of Italian children with severe(More)
The rate of women involved in alcohol abuse is rapidly increasing and the age of first use tends dramatically to decrease. The health and social costs are high both for the adverse effects on physical and psychological woman health, and for the teratogenic effect of alcohol on fetal development. The review takes in account physiological aspects of alcohol(More)
BACKGROUND Benzodiazepine has been shown to be one of the most effective class of drugs in the management of alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS). Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) has recently been introduced in the treatment of alcohol problems, including AWS. At present there are no comparative studies between benzodiazepines and GHB in AWS treatment. The aim(More)
Hepatitis C virus infection is associated with various extrahepatic manifestations such as mixed cryoglobulinemia, membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis and porphyria cutanea tarda. The link between mixed cryoglobulinemia and hepatitis C virus infection is actually well known. Interferon alpha therapy decreases hepatitis C viremia and improves the(More)