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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used as analgesics. Although the results of clinical studies indicate considerable disparity in the analgesic efficacy of NSAIDs, the pre-clinical models generally used for the study of nociception do not allow a clear distinction to be made between the analgesic properties of agents belonging to(More)
A bidirectional flow of informations exists between the central nervous system and the immune system. Cytokines play a crucial role in this communication and exert several neuromodulatory actions. This short review considers some data concerning the effects of several cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating(More)
The acute effect of the non-tricyclic, pro-serotoninergic, antidepressant drug fluoxetine on inflammatory edema was evaluated in the rat. Fluoxetine significantly and dose dependently reduced the swelling induced by the injection of 10% brewer's yeast suspension in the hindpaw. Both adrenalectomy and hypophysectomy prevented the effect of fluoxetine. In(More)
Recent studies indicate that the proinflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, an enzyme involved in inflammatory cascades but also normal neuronal activities, is elevated in the brain and spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and ALS mouse model systems. On the basis of this evidence, we explored the impact of COX-2 inhibition on the(More)
Exposure to hypoxia (PO2 = 9 +/- 1 torr) increased human peripheral blood mononuclear cell production and secretion of interleukin-1 (IL-1)alpha, IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) percent of control = 190% for IL-1 alpha, p = 0.014; 219% for IL-1 beta, p = 0.014; and 243% for TNF, p = 0.037) following treatment with endotoxin (1 ng/ml). Hypoxia(More)
UNLABELLED There has been growing interest in determining the possible immune consequences of opioid administration for the management of postoperative pain. We studied the effects of morphine and tramadol on pain and immune function during the postoperative period in 30 patients undergoing abdominal surgery for uterine carcinoma.(More)
To clarify the possible role of TNF and IL-1 in endotoxic shock, the lethality of rTNF (human and murine) and IL-1 in adrenalectomized mice was studied. Adrenalectomy, which has long been known to increase the susceptibility to endotoxin, rendered mice susceptible to TNF and IL-1 in terms of mortality. The lethality of endotoxin, TNF, or IL-1 was totally(More)
This study set out to clarify whether the inhibition of sterol or nonsterol derivatives arising from mevalonate biotransformation plays a major role in the in vivo anti-inflammatory action of statins. Hepatic synthesis of all these derivatives was inhibited in mice by administered statins, whereas squalestatin inhibited only sterol derivatives. Using a(More)
BACKGROUND We examined the changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) after intraplantar administration of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats. In addition, we investigated whether different analgesic drugs orally administered at antihyperalgesic doses were able to prevent(More)