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Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are frequently used as analgesics. Although the results of clinical studies indicate considerable disparity in the analgesic efficacy of NSAIDs, the pre-clinical models generally used for the study of nociception do not allow a clear distinction to be made between the analgesic properties of agents belonging to(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of the present study was to estimate the concordance rate between erythrocyte thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) activity and genotype at the TPMT locus in an Italian population sample. METHODS The TPMT phenotype and genotype were determined in an unrelated population of 103 Italian healthy blood donors. Erythrocyte TPMT activity was(More)
Recent studies indicate that the proinflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, an enzyme involved in inflammatory cascades but also normal neuronal activities, is elevated in the brain and spinal cord of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients and ALS mouse model systems. On the basis of this evidence, we explored the impact of COX-2 inhibition on the(More)
To clarify the possible role of TNF and IL-1 in endotoxic shock, the lethality of rTNF (human and murine) and IL-1 in adrenalectomized mice was studied. Adrenalectomy, which has long been known to increase the susceptibility to endotoxin, rendered mice susceptible to TNF and IL-1 in terms of mortality. The lethality of endotoxin, TNF, or IL-1 was totally(More)
Exposure to hypoxia (PO2 = 9 +/- 1 torr) increased human peripheral blood mononuclear cell production and secretion of interleukin-1 (IL-1)alpha, IL-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) percent of control = 190% for IL-1 alpha, p = 0.014; 219% for IL-1 beta, p = 0.014; and 243% for TNF, p = 0.037) following treatment with endotoxin (1 ng/ml). Hypoxia(More)
BACKGROUND We examined the changes in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) after intraplantar administration of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in rats. In addition, we investigated whether different analgesic drugs orally administered at antihyperalgesic doses were able to prevent(More)
A bidirectional flow of informations exists between the central nervous system and the immune system. Cytokines play a crucial role in this communication and exert several neuromodulatory actions. This short review considers some data concerning the effects of several cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1, IL-2, IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating(More)
Surgery stress has been shown to be associated in rat with decreased natural killer (NK) cell activity and enhancement of tumor metastasis. We have previously shown that the analgesic drug tramadol stimulates NK activity both in the rodent and in the human. In the present study, we analyze, in the rat, tramadol ability to prevent the effect of experimental(More)
OBJECTIVE Plasma concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), a major endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, is considered a novel risk factor for endothelial dysfunction associated with enhanced atherosclerosis. Coronary microcirculation abnormalities have been demonstrated in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) without any signs(More)