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The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells is tightly regulated because of their potential to damage macromolecules, including DNA. To investigate possible links between high ROS levels, oxidative DNA damage, and genomic instability in mammalian cells, we established a novel model of chronic oxidative stress by coexpressing the NADPH(More)
The effects of phenothiazines (chlorpromazine, chlorpromazine sulfoxide, and trifluoperazine) and antimitotic drugs (colchicine and vinblastine) on the erythrocyte membrane have been investigated. Chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine induced a dose-dependent increase in the freedom of motion of stearic acid spin-labels bound to both intact erythrocytes and(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) undergoes NAD(H) linkage to an active site thiol when it comes into contact with .NO-related oxidants. We found that a free-radical generator 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH), which does not release either .NO or .NO-related species, was indeed able(More)
Erythrocytes are peculiar cells aimed at the delivery of oxygen and nitric oxide to the periphery and carbon dioxide to the lungs. In addition, they also exert, under physiological conditions, a scavenging activity towards reactive oxygen and nitrogen species often over-produced in morbidity states, e.g. in inflamed tissues. Their deformability is essential(More)
The effect of recombinant gp120 HIV envelope glycoprotein on the generation of free radicals by monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) was measured by EPR spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). After 1 day in culture, MDM produced a spin trap adduct of DMPO with hyperfine splitting constants superimposable on those of DMPO-OH. The addition(More)
The hypothesis that peroxynitrite may act as a signaling molecule able to upregulate protein tyrosine phosphorylation is discussed. This article focuses on the mechanisms for activating kinases of the src family, an important class of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases implicated in the regulation of cell communication, proliferation, migration, differentiation,(More)
Although peroxynitrite is believed to be one of the most efficient tyrosine-nitrating species of biological relevance so far identified, its nitration efficiency is nevertheless limited. In fact, the nitrating species formed through peroxynitrite decay are caged radicals ((*)OH/(*)NO(2) or, in the presence of carbon dioxide, CO(3)(*-)/(*)NO(2)) and the(More)
Peroxynitrite, the product of the radical-radical reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide anion, is a potent oxidant involved in tissue damage in neurodegenerative disorders. We investigated the modifications induced by peroxynitrite in tyrosine residues of proteins from synaptosomes. Peroxynitrite treatment (> or =50 microM) induced tyrosine nitration(More)
Peroxynitrite, the product of the reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide anion, is able to nitrate protein tyrosines. If this modification occurs on phosphotyrosine kinase substrates, it can down-regulate cell signaling. We investigated the effects of peroxynitrite on band 3-mediated signal transduction of human erythrocytes. Peroxynitrite treatment(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has recently been viewed as an inflammation-dependent systemic disease. Oxidative modifications in the pulmonary microenvironment can result in a number of functional changes in pulmonary tissue as well as in the blood. Studies have been carried out to detect whether oxidatively modified molecules or cells could(More)