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The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mammalian cells is tightly regulated because of their potential to damage macromolecules, including DNA. To investigate possible links between high ROS levels, oxidative DNA damage, and genomic instability in mammalian cells, we established a novel model of chronic oxidative stress by coexpressing the NADPH(More)
Dietary inorganic nitrate is secreted in saliva and reduced to nitrite by bacterial flora. At the acidic pH of the stomach nitrite is present as nitrous acid in equilibrium with nitric oxide (*NO), and other nitrogen oxides with nitrating and nitrosating activity. *NO in the stomach exerts several beneficial effects, but nitrosating/nitrating species have(More)
The effects of phenothiazines (chlorpromazine, chlorpromazine sulfoxide, and trifluoperazine) and antimitotic drugs (colchicine and vinblastine) on the erythrocyte membrane have been investigated. Chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine induced a dose-dependent increase in the freedom of motion of stearic acid spin-labels bound to both intact erythrocytes and(More)
Bilirubin is a bile pigment that may have an important role as an antioxidant. Its antioxidant potential is attributed mainly to the scavenging of peroxyl radicals. We investigated the reaction of bilirubin with peroxynitrite in phosphate buffer and in blood plasma. In phosphate buffer bilirubin was rapidly oxidized by micromolar concentrations of(More)
The effect of recombinant gp120 HIV envelope glycoprotein on the generation of free radicals by monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) was measured by EPR spin trapping with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). After 1 day in culture, MDM produced a spin trap adduct of DMPO with hyperfine splitting constants superimposable on those of DMPO-OH. The addition(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) undergoes NAD(H) linkage to an active site thiol when it comes into contact with .NO-related oxidants. We found that a free-radical generator 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) hydrochloride (AAPH), which does not release either .NO or .NO-related species, was indeed able(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has recently been viewed as an inflammation-dependent systemic disease. Oxidative modifications in the pulmonary microenvironment can result in a number of functional changes in pulmonary tissue as well as in the blood. Studies have been carried out to detect whether oxidatively modified molecules or cells could(More)
The PT-digest of bread wheat gliadin was very active in agglutinating undifferentiated human K562(S) cells. This activity was quantitatively, but not qualitatively, similar to that of Con A or WGA. Moreover, Con A-induced cell agglutination was inhibited by mannan and mannose, WGA-induced agglutination by NAG only, and cell agglutination induced by bread(More)
Peroxynitrite, the product of the reaction between nitric oxide and superoxide anion, is able to nitrate protein tyrosines. If this modification occurs on phosphotyrosine kinase substrates, it can down-regulate cell signaling. We investigated the effects of peroxynitrite on band 3-mediated signal transduction of human erythrocytes. Peroxynitrite treatment(More)
Extracellular fluids contain low-molecular-weight antioxidants that are actively involved in the defense against reactive oxygen species. The antioxidant activity of these compounds is largely due to their ability to trap oxygen radicals. Less known is the ability of extracellular antioxidants to scavenge carbon-centered free radicals (C-radicals). These(More)