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The Escherichia coli chromosome contains two distantly located genes, gadA and gadB, which encode biochemically undistinguishable isoforms of glutamic acid decarboxylase (Gad). The Gad reaction contributes to pH homeostasis by consuming intracellular H(+) and producing gamma-aminobutyric acid. This compound is exported via the protein product of the gadC(More)
The Escherichia coli hns gene, which encodes the nucleoid protein H-NS, was deprived of its natural promoter and placed under the control of the inducible lambda PL promoter. An hns mutant yielding a protein (H-NSΔ12) with a deletion of four amino acids (Gly112-Arg-Thr-Pro115) was also obtained. Overproduction of wild-type (wt) H-NS, but not of H-NSΔ12,(More)
In the human enteropathogen Shigella transcription of virF, the primary regulator of the invasion functions, is strictly temperature-dependent and is antagonistically mediated by H-NS and FIS, which bind to specific sites on the virF promoter. Here we report on the relevance of DNA geometry to the thermoregulation of virF and demonstrate that the virF(More)
Gel shift and DNase I footprinting experiments showed that Escherichia coli FIS (factor for inversion stimulation) protein binds to at least seven sites in the promoter region of hns. These sites extend from -282 to +25 with two sites, closely flanking the DNA bend located at -150 from the transcriptional startpoint, partly overlapping the H-NS binding(More)
The virulence gene icsA of Shigella flexneri encodes an invasion protein crucial for host colonization by pathogenic bacteria. Within the intergenic region virA-icsA, we have discovered a new gene that encodes a non-translated antisense RNA (named RnaG), transcribed in cis on the complementary strand of icsA. In vitro transcription assays show that RnaG(More)
The nucleoid-associated transcriptional repressor H-NS forms both dimers and tetramers in vivo. Two types of two-hybrid systems, one capable of detecting protein dimerization and the other protein tetramerization, have been used to determine whether environmental changes could affect the oligomerization capacity of this protein in the cell. Increasing the(More)
Escherichia coli hns, encoding the abundant nucleoid protein H-NS, was subjected to site-directed mutagenesis either to delete Pro115 or to replace it with alanine. Unlike the wild-type protein, hyperproduction of the mutant proteins did not inhibit macromolecular syntheses, was not toxic to cells and caused a less drastic compaction of the nucleoid. Gel(More)
The primary sequence of H-NS (136 amino acid residues, Mr = 15,402), an abundant Escherichia coli DNA-binding protein, has been elucidated and its quaternary structure has been investigated by protein-protein cross-linking reactions. It was found that H-NS exists predominantly as a dimer, even at very low concentrations, but may form tetramers at higher(More)
Expression of a promoterless cat gene fused to a DNA fragment of approximately 400 bp, beginning at -313 of Escherichia coli hns, was significantly repressed in E. coli and Salmonella typhimurium strains with wild-type hns but not in mutants carrying hns alleles. CAT expression from fusions containing a shorter (110 bp) segment of hns was essentially(More)
The mechanism of pathogenicity in Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) requires the co-ordinated expression of several genes located on both the virulence plasmid and the chromosome. We found that cells lacking a functional FIS protein (factor for inversion stimulation) are partially impaired in expressing the virulence genes and that full(More)