Maurizio Balestrino

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Hippocampal tissue slices were made hypoxic for 4-10 min and then reoxygenated for 60-120 min. Postsynaptic evoked potentials were recorded and extracellular DC potential was monitored continuously in stratum (st.) pyramidale of CA1 and st. granulosum of fascia dentata (FD). In some preparations extracellular potassium ([K+]o) and calcium ([Ca2+]o) were(More)
Hereditary creatine transporter deficiency causes brain damage, despite the brain having the enzymes to synthesize creatine. Such damage occurring despite an endogenous synthesis is not easily explained. This condition is incurable, because creatine may not be delivered to the brain without its transporter. Creatine-derived compounds that crossed the(More)
1. Interstitial pH (pHo) was measured with ion-selective microelectrodes in the fascia dentata of rats anaesthetized with urethane, while CO2 levels were controlled by varying pulmonary ventilation and CO2 content of inspired air. In the CA1 sector of hippocampal tissue slices in vitro pHo was similarly measured and altered by varying CO2 in the gas phase,(More)
Creatine is of paramount importance for maintaining and managing cellular ATP stores in both physiological and pathological states. Besides these “ergogenic” actions, it has a number of additional “pleiotropic” effects, e.g., antioxidant activity, neurotransmitter-like behavior, prevention of opening of mitochondrial permeability pore and others. Creatine(More)
Incubation of hippocampal slices with different concentrations of creatine (0.5, 1, 10, 25 mM) results in a dose-dependent increase in intracellular phosphocreatine (PCr). Electrophysiological evidence suggests that this effect can protect neurons from anoxic damage by delaying the depletion of ATP during oxygen deprivation. In this paper we show that(More)
We used ouabain (100 microM) to block Na+,K(+)ATPase of in vitro rat hippocampal slices. This treatment was sufficient to cause the sudden depolarization that is the hallmark of both spreading depression (SD) and of the SD-like anoxic depolarization (AD). This depolarization was accompanied by a large and sudden increase in [K](o), also reminiscent of that(More)
We have investigated the possible protective effect of chlorpromazine in hypoxia of brain tissue, using rat hippocampal slices maintained at 35-36 degrees C. The recovery of synaptic transmission along the Schaffer collaterals to the CA1 pathway after 9 min hypoxia was compared in chlorpromazine-treated and in control slices. Recovery upon reoxygenation was(More)
A microelectrode array (MEA) consisting of 34 silicon nitride passivated Pt-tip microelectrodes embedded on a perforated silicon substrate (porosity 35%) has been realized. The electrodes are 47 microns high, of which only the top 15 microns are exposed Pt-tips having a curvature of 0.5 micron. The MEA is intended for extracellular recordings of brain(More)
Creatine, a compound that is critical for energy metabolism of nervous cells, crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the neuronal plasma membrane with difficulty, and only using its specific transporter. In the hereditary condition where the creatine transporter is defective (creatine transporter deficiency) there is no creatine in the brain, and(More)
Neurotoxicity aims to understand how xenobiotics interfere with the function of the nervous system and to unravel their mechanisms of action. Neuronal activity is the primary functional output of the nervous system and deviations from its resting level may indicate toxicity. Consequently, the monitoring of electrophysiological activity in complex cell(More)