Mauricio Valencia

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RATIONALE Respiratory failure after extubation and reintubation is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy of noninvasive ventilation in averting respiratory failure after extubation in patients at increased risk. METHODS A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in 162 mechanically ventilated(More)
BACKGROUND The 2005 guidelines of the American Thoracic Society-Infectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines for Hospital for managing hospital-acquired pneumonia classified patients according to time of onset and risk factors for potentially drug-resistant microorganisms to select the empirical antimicrobial treatment. We assessed the microbial(More)
BACKGROUND Non-invasive ventilation can prevent respiratory failure after extubation in individuals at increased risk of this complication, and enhanced survival in patients with hypercapnia has been recorded. We aimed to assess prospectively the effectiveness of non-invasive ventilation after extubation in patients with hypercapnia and as rescue therapy(More)
RATIONALE Most current information on hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is extrapolated from patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). No studies have evaluated HAP in the intensive care unit (ICU) in nonventilated patients. OBJECTIVES To compare pneumonia acquired in the ICU by mechanically ventilated versus nonventilated patients. METHODS(More)
OBJECTIVE The aspiration of subglottic secretions colonized by bacteria pooled around the tracheal tube cuff due to inadvertent deflation (<20 cm H2O) of the cuff plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of ventilator-associated pneumonia. We assessed the efficacy of an automatic, validated device for the continuous regulation of tracheal tube cuff(More)
An International Consensus Conference proposed classifying weaning into simple, difficult, and prolonged weaning. However, the usefulness of this classification in a respiratory intensive care unit (ICU) is unknown. The aims of the study were: (1) to compare the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients from the three weaning groups in a respiratory(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the main nosocomial infection in patients receiving mechanical ventilation. Despite numerous advances in the understanding of this disorder, the incidence rate continues in an unacceptable range. In this review, we discuss some important findings of recently published studies on diagnosis,(More)
The utility of procalcitonin levels to improve the accuracy of clinical and microbiological parameters in diagnosing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) was evaluated. Sequential measurement of procalcitonin and C-reactive protein levels and the calculation of the simplified Clinical Pulmonary Infection Scores (CPIS) were performed in 44 patients(More)
The American Thoracic Society (ATS) guideline for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) released in 1996 and the Trouillet classification published in 1998 supply different rational foundations for the classification of patients with HAP and for the selection of initial antibiotic therapy. The aims of this study were to assess the level of bacterial coverage(More)
OBJECTIVE Inflammatory markers have been assessed for the diagnosis and follow-up of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), but their potential role in predicting the risk for VAP is unknown. We prospectively assessed the evolution of cytokines in mechanically ventilated patients and their predictive and diagnostic role for VAP. DESIGN Prospective(More)