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Research suggests that the basal ganglia complex is a major component of the neural circuitry that mediates reward-related processing. However, human studies have not yet characterized the response of the basal ganglia to an isolated reward, as has been done in animals. We developed an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to identify(More)
Understanding how fears are acquired is an important step in translating basic research to the treatment of fear-related disorders. However, understanding how learned fears are diminished may be even more valuable. We explored the neural mechanisms of fear extinction in humans. Studies of extinction in nonhuman animals have focused on two interconnected(More)
The human striatum has been implicated in processing reward-related information. More recently, activity in the striatum, particularly the caudate nucleus, has been observed when a contingency between behavior and reward exists, suggesting a role for the caudate in reinforcement-based learning. Using a gambling paradigm, in which affective feedback (reward(More)
The goal of this research was to further our understanding of how the striatum responds to the delivery of affective feedback. Previously, we had found that the striatum showed a pattern of sustained activation after presentation of a monetary reward, in contrast to a decrease in the hemodynamic response after a punishment. In this study, we tested whether(More)
Recent efforts to translate basic research to the treatment of clinical disorders have led to a growing interest in exploring mechanisms for diminishing fear. This research has emphasized two approaches: extinction of conditioned fear, examined across species; and cognitive emotion regulation, unique to humans. Here, we sought to examine the similarities(More)
Investigations of working memory (WM) systems in the frontal cortex have revealed two stimulus dimensions along which frontal cortical representations may be functionally organized. One hypothesized dimension dissociates verbal from nonverbal WM processes, dividing left from right frontal regions. The second hypothesized dimension dissociates spatial from(More)
Research has increasingly implicated the striatum in the processing of reward-related information in both animals and humans. However, it is unclear whether human striatal activation is driven solely by the hedonic properties of rewards or whether such activation is reliant on other factors, such as anticipation of upcoming reward or performance of an(More)
Much of our knowledge of how reward information is processed in the brain comes from a rich animal literature. Recently, the advancement of neuroimaging techniques has allowed researchers to extend such investigations to the human brain. A common finding across species and methodologies is the involvement of the striatum, the input structure of the basal(More)
Studies of reward learning have implicated the striatum as part of a neural circuit that guides and adjusts future behavior on the basis of reward feedback. Here we investigate whether prior social and moral information about potential trading partners affects this neural circuitry. Participants made risky choices about whether to trust hypothetical trading(More)
Studies examining memories of arousing 'real-life' events show that emotion heightens the feeling of remembering, without necessarily enhancing the objective accuracy of the memories. We measured brain activity associated with the feeling of remembering emotional and neutral photos. Subjects indicated whether recognition was accompanied by a recollection of(More)