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Understanding how fears are acquired is an important step in translating basic research to the treatment of fear-related disorders. However, understanding how learned fears are diminished may be even more valuable. We explored the neural mechanisms of fear extinction in humans. Studies of extinction in nonhuman animals have focused on two interconnected(More)
Research has increasingly implicated the striatum in the processing of reward-related information in both animals and humans. However, it is unclear whether human striatal activation is driven solely by the hedonic properties of rewards or whether such activation is reliant on other factors, such as anticipation of upcoming reward or performance of an(More)
Recent efforts to translate basic research to the treatment of clinical disorders have led to a growing interest in exploring mechanisms for diminishing fear. This research has emphasized two approaches: extinction of conditioned fear, examined across species; and cognitive emotion regulation, unique to humans. Here, we sought to examine the similarities(More)
Studies examining memories of arousing 'real-life' events show that emotion heightens the feeling of remembering, without necessarily enhancing the objective accuracy of the memories. We measured brain activity associated with the feeling of remembering emotional and neutral photos. Subjects indicated whether recognition was accompanied by a recollection of(More)
Previous emotion regulation research has been successful in altering aversive emotional reactions. It is unclear, however, whether such strategies can also efficiently regulate expectations of reward arising from conditioned stimuli, which can at times be maladaptive (for example, drug cravings). Using a monetary reward-conditioning procedure with cognitive(More)
BACKGROUND Functional disturbances in reward-related brain systems are thought to play a role in the development of mood, impulse, and substance-abuse disorders. Studies in nonhuman primates have identified brain regions, including the dorsal/ventral striatum and orbital-frontal cortex, in which neural activity is modulated by reward. Recent studies in(More)
There is considerable evidence that human economic decision-making deviates from the predictions of expected utility theory (EUT) and that human performance conforms to EUT in many perceptual and motor decision tasks. It is possible that these results reflect a real difference in decision-making in the 2 domains but it is also possible that the observed(More)
Recent research in neuroeconomics has demonstrated that the reinforcement learning model of reward learning captures the patterns of both behavioral performance and neural responses during a range of economic decision-making tasks. However, this powerful theoretical model has its limits. Trial-and-error is only one of the means by which individuals can(More)
Much of our knowledge of how reward information is processed in the brain comes from a rich animal literature. Recently, the advancement of neuroimaging techniques has allowed researchers to extend such investigations to the human brain. A common finding across species and methodologies is the involvement of the striatum, the input structure of the basal(More)
Neuroimaging studies of working memory have revealed two sites in the left supramarginal gyrus that may support the short-term storage of phonological information. Activation in the left dorsal aspect of the inferior parietal cortex (DIPC) has been observed in contrasts of working memory load, whereas activation in the ventral aspect of the inferior(More)