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Scn8a encodes an abundant, widely distributed voltage-gated sodium channel found throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems. Mice with different mutant alleles of Scn8a provide models of the movement disorders ataxia, dystonia, tremor and progressive paralysis. We previously reported that the phenotype of the hypomorphic allele of Scn8a, medJ, is(More)
The structures of functional peptides corresponding to the predicted channel-lining M2 segments of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) and of a glutamate receptor of the NMDA subtype (NMDAR) were determined using solution NMR experiments on micelle samples, and solid-state NMR experiments on bilayer samples. Both M2 segments form straight(More)
Mechanotransduction has an important role in physiology. Biological processes including sensing touch and sound waves require as-yet-unidentified cation channels that detect pressure. Mouse Piezo1 (MmPiezo1) and MmPiezo2 (also called Fam38a and Fam38b, respectively) induce mechanically activated cationic currents in cells; however, it is unknown whether(More)
Complex conformational changes influence and regulate the dynamics of ion channels. Such conformational changes are stochastic and often inhomogeneous, which makes it extremely difficult, if not impossible, to characterize them by ensemble-averaged experiments or by single-channel recordings of the electric current that report the open-closed events but do(More)
The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) is activated when a cell swells, and it plays a central role in maintaining cell volume in response to osmotic challenges. SWELL1 (LRRC8A) was recently identified as an essential component of VRAC. However, the identity of the pore-forming subunits of VRAC and how the channel is gated by cell swelling are unknown.(More)
Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI) is characterized by intractable febrile and afebrile seizures, severe mental decline, and onset during the first year of life. Nonsense, frameshift, and missense mutations of SCN1A gene encoding the voltage-gated Na(+) channel alpha-subunit type I (Na(v)1.1) have been identified in patients with SMEI. Here, we(More)
Mutations, exclusively missense, of voltage-gated sodium channel alpha subunit type 1 (SCN1A) and type 2 (SCN2A) genes were reported in patients with idiopathic epilepsy: generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. Nonsense and frameshift mutations of SCN1A, by contrast, were identified in intractable epilepsy: severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy(More)
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the causative agent of botulism, is acknowledged to be the most poisonous protein known. BoNT proteases disable synaptic vesicle exocytosis by cleaving their cytosolic SNARE (soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) substrates. BoNT is a modular nanomachine: an N-terminal Zn(2+)-metalloprotease, which cleaves the SNAREs; a(More)
and Blatter, 1997). Each of these observations is controversial. Petersen and Berridge (1995) and Gregory and Barritt (1996) showed that the GTP␥S inhibition of Ca 2ϩ influx into oocytes could be prevented by staurosporine. via stimulation of kinases. The effect of primaquine has been reinterpreted as direct inhibition of the Ca 2ϩ influx La Jolla,(More)
Depletion of Ca2+ stores in Xenopus oocytes activated entry of Ca2+ across the plasma membrane, which was measured as a current I(soc) in subsequently formed cell-attached patches. I(soc) survived excision into inside-out configuration. If cell-attached patches were formed before store depletion, I(soc) was activated outside but not inside the patches.(More)