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A mathematical inertia model which permits the determination of personalized segmental inertia parameter values from anthropometric measurements is described. The human body is modelled using 40 geometric solids which are specified by 95 anthropometric measurements. A 'stadium' solid is introduced for modelling the torso segments using perimeter and width(More)
Quantitative mechanical analyses of human movement require the time histories of the angles which specify body configuration and orientation. When these angles are obtained from a filmed performance they may be used to evaluate the accuracy of a simulation model. This paper presents a method of determining orientation angles and their rates of change from(More)
The purpose of this paper is to discuss some biomechanical aspects of playing surfaces with special focus on (a) surface induced injuries, (b) methodologies used to assess surfaces and (c) findings from various sports. The paper concentrates primarily on questions related to load on the athlete's body. Data from epidemiological studies suggest strongly that(More)
A method is presented for determining the angular momentum of the human body about its mass centre for general three-dimensional movements. The body is modelled as an 11 segment link system with 17 rotational degrees of freedom and the angular momentum of the body is derived as a sum of 12 terms, each of which is a vector function of just one angular(More)
A computer simulation model of human airborne movement is described. The body is modelled as 11 rigid linked segments with 17 degrees of freedom which are chosen with a view to modelling twisting somersaults. The accuracy of the model is evaluated by comparing the simulation values of the angles describing somersault, tilt and twist with the corresponding(More)
Results of mechanical analyses of running may be helpful in the search for the etiology of running injuries. In this study a mechanical analysis was made of the landing phase of three trained heel-toe runners, running at their preferred speed and style. The body was modeled as a system of seven linked rigid segments, and the positions of markers defining(More)
Linear regression equations are commonly used in conjunction with experimental data to provide linear relationships between quantities which are dimensionally distinct. In many cases theoretical relationships between such quantities are known and can be used as a basis for non-linear regression equations. This study compares linear and non-linear approaches(More)
A simulation model and a rigid body model are used to evaluate aerial twisting techniques. It is found that when somersault is not present, a number of cycles of segment counter-rotation are required to produce one twist. When somersault is present, twist may be introduced by producing tilt using asymmetrical movements of the arms, chest or hips about the(More)
The mechanical properties of a boxing punch have been determined using several techniques. The results are consistent with the medical consequences of boxing discussed in the report of the Board of Science and Education Working Party on boxing. Data were gathered from a world ranked British professional heavyweight, Frank Bruno, as he punched an(More)
This series of four papers comprises a theoretical investigation into twisting somersaults. Both simple and complex mathematical models are used to provide an understanding of the mechanics of the production and removal of twist in somersaults. Various twisting techniques are evaluated and a method is developed for the partitioning of an actual performance(More)