Maurice R Elphick

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There are at least two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)). Ligands activating these G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) include the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, numerous synthetic compounds, and endogenous compounds known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptor antagonists have also been developed. Some of these ligands(More)
Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) catalyses hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid arachidonoylethanolamide ("anandamide") in vitro and regulates anandamide levels in the brain. In the cerebellar cortex, hippocampus and neocortex of the rat brain, FAAH is located in the somata and dendrites of neurons that are postsynaptic to axon fibers expressing the CB(1)(More)
Balanced control of neuronal activity is central in maintaining function and viability of neuronal circuits. The endocannabinoid system tightly controls neuronal excitability. Here, we show that endocannabinoids directly target hippocampal glutamatergic neurons to provide protection against acute epileptiform seizures in mice. Functional CB1 cannabinoid(More)
The CB(1)-type cannabinoid receptor mediates physiologic effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive ingredient of the drug marijuana. In this report, the authors analyse the expression of CB(1) in the rat brain by using antibodies to the C-terminal 13 amino acids of the receptor. Western blot analysis of rat brain membranes revealed a(More)
The sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome provides a unique opportunity to investigate the function and evolution of neural genes. The neurobiology of sea urchins is of particular interest because they have a close phylogenetic relationship with chordates, yet a distinctive pentaradiate body plan and unusual neural organization. Orthologues(More)
CB1-type cannabinoid receptors in the brain mediate effects of the drug cannabis. Anandamide and sn-2 arachidonylglycerol (2-AG) are putative endogenous ligands for CB1 receptors, but it is not known which cells in the brain produce these molecules. Recently, an enzyme which catalyses hydrolysis of anandamide and 2-AG, known as fatty acid amide hydrolase(More)
A role for the NO-cGMP pathway in mediating chemosensory activation of feeding is suggested by intense NADPH diaphorase staining observed in nerve fibers that project from sensory cells in the lips to the CNS and by the presence in the CNS of a NO-activated guanylyl cyclase. In preparations reduced to isolated lips and CNS, intracellular recordings were(More)
The melanocortin receptor (MCR) family consists of 5 G protein-coupled receptors (MC1R-MC5R) with diverse physiologic roles. MC2R is a critical component of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, whereas MC3R and MC4R have an essential role in energy homeostasis. Mutations in MC4R are the single most common cause of monogenic obesity. Investigating the(More)
The plant Cannabis sativa has been used by humans for thousands of years because of its psychoactivity. The major psychoactive ingredient of cannabis is Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, which exerts effects in the brain by binding to a G-protein-coupled receptor known as the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. The discovery of this receptor indicated that endogenous(More)
The brain of the locust Schistocerca gregaria contains a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) that has similar properties to mammalian neuronal NOS. It catalyses the production of equimolar quantities of nitric oxide (NO) and citrulline from L-arginine in a Ca2+/calmodulinand NADPHdependent manner and is inhibited by the Nv-nitro and Nvmonomethyl analogues of(More)