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Metrology, the science of measurement, involves the determination of physical quantities from experiment, along with estimates of their associated uncertainties. In this endeavour, a mathematical model of the measurement system is required in order to extract information from the experimental data. This involves model building: developing a mathematical(More)
When analysing a sample statistically, the quality of the resulting parameters (measures of location, dispersion, etc.) depends on the reliability or credibility of the data and on the analysis undertaken. The data provided by interlaboratory comparisons, and especially key comparisons, is of sufficient importance that approaches are required which are as(More)
The accuracy of data recorded by many measurement systems is limited both by uncertainty in the measured value as well as by uncertainty in the trigger input to the system which controls when a measurement is taken. The former effect, which appears as noise on the underlying signal, is due, in part, to the sampling process and can often be reduced to an(More)
Extracts from this guide may be reproduced provided the source is acknowledged and the extract is not taken out of context ABSTRACT This guide provides best practice on the evaluation of uncertainties within metrology, and on the support to this topic given by statistical modelling. It is motivated by two principle considerations. One is that although the(More)
Many mathematical and statistical problems that arise in metrology can be posed in such a way that they possess a unique correct solution. However, algorithms in standards or software libraries, such as METROS, may only provide an approximate solution or the solution to a nearby problem. An approximate or nearby problem is often introduced so as to give a(More)
Many experiments in metrology involve the use of instruments or measuring systems that measure values of a response variable corresponding to given values of a stimulus variable. The calibration of such instruments requires using a set of measurements of stimulus and response variables, along with their associated uncertainties, to determine estimates of(More)