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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by the presence of disturbances in emotional processing. However, the neural correlates of these alterations, and how they may be affected by therapeutic interventions, remain unclear. The present study addressed these issues in a preliminary investigation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to(More)
The authors manipulated emotion regulation strategies at encoding and administered explicit and implicit memory tests. In Experiment 1, participants used reappraisal to enhance and decrease the personal relevance of unpleasant and neutral pictures. In Experiment 2, decrease cues were replaced with suppress cues that directed participants to inhibit(More)
Although the perirhinal cortex (PRC), parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) have an essential role in memory, the precise functions of these areas are poorly understood. Here, we review the anatomical and functional characteristics of these areas based on studies in humans, monkeys and rats. Our Review suggests that the PRC and PHC-RSC(More)
Over the past decade, fMRI techniques have been increasingly used to interrogate the neural correlates of successful emotional memory encoding. These investigations have typically aimed to either characterize the contributions of the amygdala and medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system, replicating results in animals, or delineate the neural correlates of(More)
According to the consolidation hypothesis, enhanced memory for emotional information reflects the modulatory effect of the amygdala on the medial temporal lobe (MTL) memory system during consolidation. Although there is evidence that amygdala-MTL connectivity enhances memory for emotional stimuli, it remains unclear whether this enhancement increases over(More)
studies of the densely amne-sic patient H.M., investigations into the neural bases of memory have targeted the medial temporal lobes (MTL). For instance, according to one influential framework, the hippocampal formation, the perirhinal cortex (PRC) and the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) comprise an 'MTL memory system' (REF. 1) that collectively supports(More)
A fundamental principle in memory research is that memory is a function of the similarity between encoding and retrieval operations. Consistent with this principle, many neurobiological models of declarative memory assume that memory traces are stored in cortical regions, and the hippocampus facilitates the reactivation of these traces during retrieval. The(More)
The neural correlates of emotion processing have been shown to vary with age: older adults (OAs) exhibit increased frontal activations and, under some circumstances, decreased amygdala activations relative to young adults (YAs) during emotion processing. Some of these differences are additionally modulated by valence, with age-related biases toward positive(More)
Neural systems may be characterized by measuring functional interactions in the healthy brain, but it is unclear whether components of systems defined in this way share functional properties. For instance, within the medial temporal lobes (MTL), different subregions show different patterns of cortical connectivity. It is unknown, however, whether these(More)
Emotion is known to influence multiple aspects of memory formation, including the initial encoding of the memory trace and its consolidation over time. However, the neural mechanisms whereby emotion impacts memory encoding remain largely unexplored. The present study used a levels-of-processing manipulation to characterize the impact of emotion on encoding(More)