Maureen R. Gwinn

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Alveolar macrophages play an important role in defense against airborne pathogens and particles. These macrophages respond through both the adaptive and acquired immune responses, and through the activation of a multitude of signaling pathways. One major macrophage defense mechanism is respiratory burst, the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).(More)
With the advent of nanotechnology, the prospects for using engineered nanomaterials with diameters of < 100 nm in industrial applications, medical imaging, disease diagnoses, drug delivery, cancer treatment, gene therapy, and other areas have progressed rapidly. The potential for nanoparticles (NPs) in these areas is infinite, with novel new applications(More)
BACKGROUND In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of trichloroethylene (TCE) in September 2011, which was the result of an effort spanning > 20 years. OBJECTIVES We summarized the key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of(More)
BACKGROUND The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) completed a toxicological review of tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE) in February 2012 in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). OBJECTIVES We reviewed key findings and scientific issues regarding the human health effects of PCE described in the U.S. EPA's(More)
Microarray technology has advanced toward analysis of toxic occupational exposures in biological systems. Microarray analysis is an ideal way to search for biomarkers of exposure, even if no specific gene or pathway has been identified. Analysis may now be performed on thousands of genes simultaneously, as opposed to small numbers of genes as in the past.(More)
BACKGROUND Although asbestos in general is well known to cause a range of neoplastic and non-neoplastic human health effects, not all asbestos fiber types have the same disease-causing potential, and the mode of action (MOA) of specific types of asbestos and related fibers for various health outcomes are not well understood. OBJECTIVES A workshop was held(More)
Organophosphate pesticides are a major source of occupational exposure in the United States. Moreover, malathion has been sprayed over major urban populations in an effort to control mosquitoes carrying West Nile virus. Previous research, reviewed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, on the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of malathion has been(More)
Microarrays are used to study gene expression in a variety of biological systems. A number of different platforms have been developed, but few studies exist that have directly compared the performance of one platform with another. The goal of this study was to determine array variation by analyzing the same RNA samples with three different array platforms.(More)
Studies show that female workers in the personal-care industry have an increased risk of developing cancer believed to be the result of increased exposure to toxic and/or carcinogenic chemicals found in cosmetics, hair dyes, and nail polish. One chemical found in multiple personal-care products, di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), is a known endocrine disruptor and(More)
Crystalline silica (silica), a suspected human carcinogen, produces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) when fractured using mechanical tools used in several occupations. Although ROS has been linked to apoptosis, DNA damage, and carcinogenesis, the role of enhanced ROS production by silica in silica-induced carcinogenesis is not completely(More)