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Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous yeast ubiquitous in the environment, a model for fungal pathogenesis, and an opportunistic human pathogen of global importance. We have sequenced its approximately 20-megabase genome, which contains approximately 6500 intron-rich gene structures and encodes a transcriptome abundant in alternatively spliced and(More)
Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised patients. The fungal cell wall is an excellent target for antifungal therapies as it is an essential organelle that provides cell structure and integrity, it is needed for the localization or attachment of known(More)
Chitin is an essential component of the cell wall of many fungi. Chitin also can be enzymatically deacetylated to chitosan, a more flexible and soluble polymer. Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that causes cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised patients. In this work, we show that both chitin and chitosan are present(More)
A genome browser is software that allows users to visualize DNA, protein, or other sequence features within the context of a reference sequence, such as a chromosome or contig. The Generic Genome Browser (GBrowse) is an open-source browser developed as part of the Generic Model Organism Database project (Stein et al., 2002). GBrowse can be configured to(More)
Pegylated alpha interferon and ribavirin therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 infection fails for half of Caucasian American patients (CA) and more often for African Americans (AA). The reasons for these low response rates are unknown. HCV is highly genetically variable, but it is unknown how this variability affects response to therapy. To assess(More)
We present a kinetic partitioning mechanism by which the highly efficient 3'----5' exonuclease activity of T7 DNA polymerase maximizes its contribution to replication fidelity with minimal excision of correctly base-paired DNA. The elementary rate constants for the proposed mechanism have been measured directly from single-turnover experiments by using(More)
Promising programs developed through health promotion and disease prevention research are not always disseminated to the agencies, organizations, and individuals that can benefit from them most. Systematic and practical approaches to dissemination are needed to ensure that effective programs more often reach end users in communities. This article describes(More)
BACKGROUND Pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) fails in approximately half of genotype 1 patients. Treatment failure occurs either by nonresponse (minimal declines in viral titer) or relapse (robust initial responses followed by rebounds of viral titers during or after therapy). HCV is highly variable genetically. To(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has six major genotypes, and patients infected with genotype 1 respond less well to interferon-based therapy than other genotypes. African American patients respond to interferon alpha-based therapy at about half the rate of Caucasian Americans. The effect of HCV's genetic variation on treatment outcome in both racial(More)
UNLABELLED Neoplastic cells rely on the tumor microenvironment (TME) for survival and progression factors. Indeed, senescent and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) express factors that promote tumorigenesis that are collectively referred to as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Despite their importance in tumorigenesis, the mechanisms(More)