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Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous yeast ubiquitous in the environment, a model for fungal pathogenesis, and an opportunistic human pathogen of global importance. We have sequenced its approximately 20-megabase genome, which contains approximately 6500 intron-rich gene structures and encodes a transcriptome abundant in alternatively spliced and(More)
A genome browser is software that allows users to visualize DNA, protein, or other sequence features within the context of a reference sequence, such as a chromosome or contig. The Generic Genome Browser (GBrowse) is an open-source browser developed as part of the Generic Model Organism Database project (Stein et al., 2002). GBrowse can be configured to(More)
UNLABELLED Neoplastic cells rely on the tumor microenvironment (TME) for survival and progression factors. Indeed, senescent and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) express factors that promote tumorigenesis that are collectively referred to as the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Despite their importance in tumorigenesis, the mechanisms(More)
The ability of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans to evade the mammalian innate immune response and cause disease is partially due to its ability to respond to and survive nitrosative stress. In this study, we use proteomic and genomic approaches to elucidate the response of C. neoformans to nitric oxide stress. This nitrosative stress response(More)
Opioid receptor signaling via EGF receptor (EGFR) transactivation and ERK/MAPK phosphorylation initiates diverse cellular responses that are cell type-dependent. In astrocytes, multiple μ opioid receptor-mediated mechanisms of ERK activation exist that are temporally distinctive and feature different outcomes. Upon discovering that chronic opiate treatment(More)
BACKGROUND Pegylated interferon plus ribavirin therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) fails in approximately half of genotype 1 patients. Treatment failure occurs either by nonresponse (minimal declines in viral titer) or relapse (robust initial responses followed by rebounds of viral titers during or after therapy). HCV is highly variable genetically. To(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has six major genotypes, and patients infected with genotype 1 respond less well to interferon-based therapy than other genotypes. African American patients respond to interferon alpha-based therapy at about half the rate of Caucasian Americans. The effect of HCV's genetic variation on treatment outcome in both racial(More)
BACKGROUND A major challenge for antiviral treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is viral resistance, potentially resulting from the high variability of HCV envelope glycoproteins and subsequent selection of strains with enhanced infectivity and/or immune escape. METHODS We used a bioinformatics and functional approach to investigate whether(More)
The ability of the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans to resist oxidative stress is one of its most important virulence related traits. To cope with the deleterious effect of cellular damage caused by the oxidative burst inside the macrophages, C. neoformans has developed multilayered redundant molecular responses to neutralize the(More)
Machine-learning methods in the form of Bayesian networks (BN), linear projection (LP) and self-organizing tree (SOT) models were used to explore association among polymorphic sites within the HVR1 and NS5a regions of the HCV genome, host demographic factors (ethnicity, gender and age) and response to the combined interferon (IFN) and ribavirin (RBV)(More)