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Although the relationships of the living hominoid primates (humans and apes) are well known, the relationships of the fossil species, times of divergence of both living and fossil species, and the biogeographic history of hominoids are not well established. Divergence times of living species, estimated from molecular clocks, have the potential to constrain(More)
BACKGROUND The earliest fossil evidence of terrestrial animal activity is from the Ordovician, approximately 450 million years ago (Ma). However, there are earlier animal fossils, and most molecular clocks suggest a deep origin of animal phyla in the Precambrian, leaving open the possibility that animals colonized land much earlier than the Ordovician. To(More)
BACKGROUND Prostate cancer is characterized by heterogeneity in the clinical course that often does not correlate with morphologic features of the tumor. Metastasis reflects the most adverse outcome of prostate cancer, and to date there are no reliable morphologic features or serum biomarkers that can reliably predict which patients are at higher risk of(More)
PURPOSE Recent studies have demonstrated a high frequency of IDH mutations in adult "secondary" malignant gliomas arising from preexisting lower grade lesions, often in young adults, but not in "primary" gliomas. Because pediatric malignant gliomas share some molecular features with adult secondary gliomas, we questioned whether a subset of these tumors(More)
PURPOSE Malignancies found in unexpected locations or with poorly differentiated morphologies can pose a significant challenge for tissue of origin determination. Current histologic and imaging techniques fail to yield definitive identification of the tissue of origin in a significant number of cases. The aim of this study was to validate a predefined(More)
BACKGROUND Carcinomas of unknown primary (CUP) represent approximately 3%-5% of malignant neoplasms. Identifying the tissue of origin (TOO) in these tumors allows for more specific treatment and improves outcomes. However, primary classification remains a challenge in many cases. We evaluated the ability of a microarray-based gene expression test to(More)
Clinical workup of metastatic malignancies of unknown origin is often arduous and expensive and is reported to be unsuccessful in 30 to 60% of cases. Accurate classification of uncertain primary cancers may improve with microarray-based gene expression testing. We evaluated the analytical performance characteristics of the Pathwork tissue of origin test,(More)
Renal tumors with complex or unusual morphology require extensive workup for accurate classification. Chromosomal aberrations that define subtypes of renal epithelial neoplasms have been reported. We explored if whole-genome chromosome copy number and loss-of-heterozygosity analysis with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays can be used to identify(More)
The use of chromosomal copy number changes as markers for tumor behavior or as prognostic markers for patient outcome has been suggested. However, current clinically used technologies cannot perform genome-wide assessment of chromosome copy number and analysis of loss of heterozygosity in the same assay for paraffin-embedded tissue. We have optimized the(More)
BACKGROUND The overall 5-year survival rate of approximately 60% for head and neck cancer patients has remained essentially unchanged over the past 30 years. MicroRNA-137 (miR-137) plays an essential role in cell-cycle control at the G1/S-phase checkpoint. However, the aberrant miR-137 promoter methylation observed in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and(More)