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OBJECTIVE To describe the most important coma scales developed in the last fifty years. METHOD A review of the literature between 1969 and 2009 in the Medline and Scielo databases was carried out using the following keywords: coma scales, coma, disorders of consciousness, coma score and levels of coma. RESULTS Five main scales were found in… (More)
Distúrbios neurológicos associadas a anticorpos anti-GAD (descarboxilase do ácido glutâmico): uma série de casos brasileira 1 Neurological disorders associated with glutamic acid decar-boxylase (GAD) antibodies include stiff-person syndrome (SPS) and its variants — stiff trunk syndrome, stiff limbs syndrome, progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity,… (More)
Triphoridae is one of the most speciose families of marine mollusks, being mainly represented by the subfamily Triphorinae. The present study aims to describe five new species of Triphorinae, and to report two species in Brazil previously known only from the Caribbean: Nanaphora verbernei (Moolenbeek & Faber) comb. nov. is herein disregarded as belonging to… (More)
Interrupted inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare anomaly. Anomalies of IVC are clinically important for cardiologists and radiologists who plan to intervene in the right heart. We describe three cases of IVC interruption diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study.
Neurological disorders associated with glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) antibodies are rare pleomorphic diseases of uncertain cause, of which stiff-person syndrome (SPS) is the best-known. Here, we described nine consecutive cases of neurological disorders associated with anti-GAD, including nine patients with SPS and three cases with cerebellar ataxia.… (More)
Alexander's disease (AD) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder , classified as a leukodystrophy and characterized by macrocephaly, psychomotor regression, spasticity, ataxia, and seizures 1. Neuropathologically, it is diagnosed by the presence of perivascular, periventricular, brainstem, and cerebellar eo-sinophylic intra-astrocytic cytoplasmic inclusions,… (More)