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Through the action of opaque-2 modifier genes, the soft, floury endosperm of opaque-2 mutants is converted to a vitreous phenotype. This change in endosperm texture is associated with a twofold to threefold increase in gamma-zein content. To investigate the effect of opaque-2 modifiers on the expression of gamma-zein genes, we analyzed the synthesis and(More)
We have developed methods for quantitative extraction and analysis of zeins from maize (Zea mays L.) flour. Extraction involved solubilization of total endosperm proteins in an alkaline buffer containing SDS and 2-mercaptoethanol with subsequent precipitation of nonzein proteins by the addition of ethanol to 70%. Analysis of these proteins by SDS-PAGE with(More)
The maize floury2 mutation results in the formation of a soft, starchy endosperm with a reduced amount of prolamin (zein) proteins and twice the lysine content of the wild type. The mutation is semidominant and is associated with small, irregularly shaped protein bodies, elevated levels of a 70-kDa chaperone in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a novel 24-kDa(More)
Hematoxylin staining is an early indicator of Aluminum (Al) toxicity effects on the apices of young, developing roots grown in nutrient solution. In this work, the potential of this technique as a reliable and reproducible phenotypic index for Al tolerance in tropical maize genotypes was assessed, with its performance systematically compared to two other(More)
Modifier genes have been described that convert the soft endosperm of opaque2 mutants to a hard, vitreous phenotype. The mode of action and the components of the genetic system involved in this seed modification are poorly understood. We used genetic and biochemical analyses to investigate the number of opaque2 modifier genes, their mode of action and their(More)
The maize floury 2 (fl2) mutation enhances the lysine content of the grain, but the soft texture of the endosperm makes it unsuitable for commercial production. The mutant phenotype is linked with the appearance of a 24-kDa alpha-zein protein and increased synthesis of binding protein, both of which are associated with irregularly shaped protein bodies. We(More)
Genetic modifiers of opaque2 convert the soft, starchy endosperm of opaque2 maize mutants to a hard, vitreous phenotype, while maintaining the enhanced lysine content of the grain. Genetic analysis of F2 segregating seeds from crosses of opaque2 by modified opaque2 genotypes indicated that the modifiers are complex traits that act codominantly. We developed(More)
Twenty eight maize open pollinated varieties (OPVs) were crossed in a diallel scheme and the 378 F1's were evaluated in 10 environments in Brazil. Based on yield-specific combining ability data (SCA), these varieties were classified in four heterotic groups. The consistence of the proposed heterotic groups was confirmed comparing intra- and inter-group F1(More)
Aluminum toxicity is one of the major constraints for plant development in acid soils, limiting food production in many countries. Cultivars genetically adapted to acid soils may offer an environmental compatible solution, providing a sustainable agriculture system. The aim of this work was to identify genomic regions associated with Al tolerance in maize,(More)