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BACKGROUND Dogs and rats have a highly developed capability to detect and identify odorant molecules, even at minute concentrations. Previous analyses have shown that the olfactory receptors (ORs) that specifically bind odorant molecules are encoded by the largest gene family sequenced in mammals so far. RESULTS We identified five amino acid patterns(More)
Since the beginnings of domestication, the craniofacial architecture of the domestic dog has morphed and radiated to human whims. By beginning to define the genetic underpinnings of breed skull shapes, we can elucidate mechanisms of morphological diversification while presenting a framework for understanding human cephalic disorders. Using intrabreed(More)
Domestic dog breeds have undergone intense selection for a variety of morphologic features, including size. Among small-dog breeds, defined as those averaging less than ~15 in. at the withers, there remains still considerable variation in body size. Yet essentially all such dogs are fixed for the same allele at the insulin-like growth factor 1 gene, which(More)
The worldwide dog population is fragmented into >350 domestic breeds. Breeds share a common ancestor, the gray wolf. The intense artificial selection imposed by humans to develop breeds with particular behaviors and phenotypic traits has occurred primarily in the last 200-300 years. As a result, the number of genes controlling the major differences in body(More)
BACKGROUND Mammalian genomes contain a large number (approximately 1000) of olfactory receptor (OR) genes, many of which (20 to 50%) are pseudogenes. OR gene transcription is not restricted to the olfactory epithelium, but is found in numerous tissues. Using microarray hybridization and RTqPCR, we analyzed the mRNA profiles of the olfactory epithelium of(More)
BACKGROUND Evolution has resulted in large repertoires of olfactory receptor (OR) genes, forming the largest gene families in mammalian genomes. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of olfactory receptors is essential if we are to understand the differences in olfactory sensory capability between individuals. Canine breeds constitute an attractive model(More)
Olfaction is a particularly important sense in the dog. Humans selected for this capacity during the domestication process, and selection has continued to be employed to enhance this ability. In this review we first describe the different olfactory systems that exist and the different odorant receptors that are expressed in those systems. We then focus on(More)
Olfactory receptors (ORs) expressed at the cell surface of olfactory sensory neurons lining the olfactory epithelium are the first actors of events leading to odor perception and recognition. As for other mammalian ORs, few dog OR have been deorphanized, mainly because of the absence of good methodology and the difficulties encountered to express ORs at the(More)
Alaskan sled dogs are a genetically distinct population shaped by generations of selective interbreeding with purebred dogs to create a group of high-performance athletes. As a result of selective breeding strategies, sled dogs present a unique opportunity to employ admixture-mapping techniques to investigate how breed composition and trait selection impact(More)
Like all articles in BMC journals, this peer-reviewed article was published immediately upon acceptance. It can be downloaded, printed and distributed freely for any purposes (see copyright notice below). which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Abstract Background
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