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Hydrodynamic flow in classical and quantum fluids can be either laminar or turbulent. Vorticity in turbulent flow is often modelled with vortex filaments. While this represents an idealization in classical fluids, vortices are topologically stable quantized objects in superfluids. Superfluid turbulence is therefore thought to be important for the(More)
New techniques, both for generating and detecting turbulence in the helium su-perfluids 3 He-B and 4 He, have recently given insight in how turbulence is started, what the dissipation mechanisms are, and how turbulence decays when it appears as a transient state or when externally applied turbulent pumping is switched off. Important simplifications are(More)
The first realization of instabilities in the shear flow between two superfluids is examined. The interface separating the A and B phases of superfluid 3He is magnetically stabilized. With uniform rotation we create a state with discontinuous tangential velocities at the interface, supported by the difference in quantized vorticity in the two phases. This(More)
We study a two-phase sample of superfluid 3He where vorticity exists in one phase (3He-A) but cannot penetrate across the interfacial boundary to a second coherent phase (3He-B). We calculate the bending of the vorticity into a surface vortex sheet on the interface and solve the internal structure of this new type of vortex sheet. The compression of the(More)
In isotropic macroscopic quantum systems vortex lines can be formed while in anisotropic systems also vortex sheets are possible. Based on measurements of superfluid 3He-A, we present the principles which select between these two competing forms of quantized vorticity: sheets displace lines if the frequency of the external drive exceeds a critical limit.(More)
A surface-mediated process is identified in 3He-B which generates vortices at a roughly constant rate. It precedes a faster form of turbulence where intervortex interactions dominate. This precursor becomes observable when vortex loops are introduced in low-velocity rotating flow at sufficiently low mutual friction dissipation at temperatures below 0.5Tc.(More)
Turbulence in superfluids depends crucially on the dissipative damping in vortex motion. This is observed in the B phase of superfluid 3 He where the dynamics of quantized vortices changes radically in character as a function of temperature. An abrupt transition to turbulence is the most peculiar consequence. As distinct from viscous hydrodynamics, this(More)
A convenient method to create vortices in meta-stable vortex-free superflow of 3 He-B is to irradiate with thermal neutrons. The vortices are then formed in a rapid non-equilibrium process with very distinctive characteristics. Two models were suggested to explain the phenomenon. One is based on the Kibble-Zurek mechanism of defect formation in a(More)
We investigate the decay of vortices in a rotating cylindrical sample, after rotation has been stopped. With decreasing temperature vortex annihilation slows down, as the damping in vortex motion, the mutual friction dissipa-tion α(T), decreases exponentially. Remnant vortices then survive for increasingly long periods, while they move towards annihilation(More)
We study a twisted vortex bundle where quantized vortices form helices circling around the axis of the bundle in a "force-free" configuration. Such a state is created by injecting vortices into a rotating vortex-free superfluid. Using continuum theory we determine the structure and the relaxation of the twisted state. This is confirmed by numerical(More)