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The default-mode network (DMN) consists of areas showing more activation during rest than during a task. Several authors propose some form of cognitive processing to underlie BOLD signal changes in the DMN as activity within the network is modulated by the level of effort required by the task and is positively correlated with self-referential processing.(More)
Little is known about the underlying neural mechanism of deep brain stimulation (DBS). We found that DBS targeted at the nucleus accumbens (NAc) normalized NAc activity, reduced excessive connectivity between the NAc and prefrontal cortex, and decreased frontal low-frequency oscillations during symptom provocation in patients with obsessive-compulsive(More)
The ability to stop a prepared response (reactive inhibition) appears to depend on the degree to which stopping is expected (proactive inhibition). Functional MRI studies have shown that activation during proactive and reactive inhibition overlaps, suggesting that the whole neural network for reactive inhibition becomes already activated in anticipation of(More)
Random effect analysis has been introduced into fMRI research in order to generalize findings from the study group to the whole population. Generalizing findings is obviously harder than detecting activation within the study group since in order to be significant, an activation has to be larger than the inter-subject variability. Indeed, detected regions(More)
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the role of the striatum in inhibitory motor control. Subjects had to refrain from responding to designated items (STOP trials) within a similar series of motor stimuli. Striatal activation was increased significantly compared to that when responding to all targets within a series of motor(More)
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can be used to detect experimental effects on brain activity across measurements. The success of such studies depends on the size of the experimental effect, the reliability of the measurements, and the number of subjects. Here, we report on the stability of fMRI measurements and provide sample size estimations(More)
BACKGROUND Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is primarily conceived as an anxiety disorder but has features resembling addictive behavior. Patients with OCD may develop dependency upon compulsive behaviors because of the rewarding effects following reduction of obsession-induced anxiety. Reward processing is critically dependent on ventral(More)
Abnormalities in the frontal lobe are considered to be central to the pathology of schizophrenia. Neuroimaging studies indeed report abnormal function of the frontal lobe in schizophrenia patients. However, the nature of these functional abnormalities is unclear, in particular whether they are affected by medication. We therefore investigated whether(More)
Age affects the ability to inhibit saccadic eye movements. According to current theories, this may be associated with age-induced neurophysiological changes in the brain and with compensatory activation in frontal brain areas. In the present study, the effects of aging are assessed on brain systems that subserve generation and inhibition of saccadic eye(More)