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Diacylglycerol (DAG) is a prominent endogenous modulator of synaptic transmission. Recent studies proposed two apparently incompatible pathways, via protein kinase C (PKC) and via Munc13. Here we show how these two pathways converge. First, we confirm that DAG analogs indeed continue to potentiate transmission after PKC inhibition (the Munc13 pathway), but(More)
Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067(More)
Most cells contain a variety of transport vesicles traveling to different destinations. Although many specific transport routes exist, the underlying molecular principles appear to be rather similar and conserved in evolution. It has become evident that formation of protein complexes named SNARE complexes between vesicle and target membrane is a central(More)
Exocytosis of secretory or synaptic vesicles is executed by a mechanism including the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins. Munc18-1 is a part of this fusion machinery, but its role is controversial because it is indispensable for fusion but also inhibits the assembly of purified SNAREs in vitro. This(More)
During synaptic vesicle fusion, the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor (SNARE) protein syntaxin-1 exhibits two conformations that both bind to Munc18-1: a "closed" conformation outside the SNARE complex and an "open" conformation in the SNARE complex. Although SNARE complexes containing open syntaxin-1 and Munc18-1 are(More)
Secretory vesicles dock at their target in preparation for fusion. Using single-vesicle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in chromaffin cells, we show that most approaching vesicles dock only transiently, but that some are captured by at least two different tethering modes, weak and strong. Both vesicle delivery and tethering depend on(More)
Transmitter release at synapses is regulated by preceding neuronal activity, which can give rise to short-term enhancement of release like post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). Diacylglycerol (DAG) and Protein-kinase C (PKC) signaling in the nerve terminal have been widely implicated in the short-term modulation of transmitter release, but the target protein of(More)
Although cognitive ability is a highly heritable complex trait, only a few genes have been identified, explaining relatively low proportions of the observed trait variation. This implies that hundreds of genes of small effect may be of importance for cognitive ability. We applied an innovative method in which we tested for the effect of groups of genes(More)
The shape, structure and connectivity of nerve cells are important aspects of neuronal function. Genetic and epigenetic factors that alter neuronal morphology or synaptic localization of pre- and post-synaptic proteins contribute significantly to neuronal output and may underlie clinical states. To assess the impact of individual genes and disease-causing(More)