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Induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance are important mechanisms to maintain the balance of the immune system. In addition to the deletion of T cells and their failure to respond in certain circumstances, active suppression mediated by T cells or T-cell factors has been proposed as a mechanism for maintaining peripheral tolerance. However, the(More)
The p53 family member TAp73 is a transcription factor that plays a key role in many biological processes, including neuronal development. In particular, we have shown that p73 drives the expression of miR-34a, but not miR-34b and c, in mouse cortical neurons. miR-34a in turn modulates the expression of synaptic targets including synaptotagmin-1 and(More)
We examined the effects of the cell-permeable, broad spectrum peptide caspase inhibitors, benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (Z-VAD.fmk), and BOC-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (BOC-D.fmk), on apoptosis induced by anti-CD2, anti-Fas, and the protein kinase inhibitor staurosporine in activated human peripheral T lymphocytes. We monitored(More)
IL-10 is a cytokine secreted by a wide variety of cells type that has pleiotropic stimulatory and suppressive activities on both lymphoid and myeloid cells in vitro. To analyze the consequences of high IL-10 secretion by APCs in immune responses, we produced transgenic mice expressing human IL-10 directed by the MHC class II Ea promoter. Despite alterations(More)
Little is known about the mechanisms of programmed death triggered in T lymphocytes by stimuli that can bypass caspase activation. Anti-CD2 monoclonal antibody and staurosporine are such apoptosis inducers because they operate in the presence of broad-spectrum caspase inhibitors BOC-D.fmk and Z-VAD.fmk. A system was devised, based on the isolation according(More)
Resistance to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of tumor cells represents a major hurdle to efficient cancer therapy. Although resistance is a characteristic of tumor cells that evolve in a low oxygen environment (hypoxia), the mechanisms involved remain elusive. We observed that mitochondria of certain hypoxic cells take on an enlarged appearance with(More)
In vivo studies have demonstrated that p63 plays complex and pivotal roles in pluristratified squamous epithelial development, but its precise function and the nature of the isoform involved remain controversial. Here, we investigate the role of p63 in epithelial differentiation, using an in vitro ES cell model that mimics the early embryonic steps of(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cell lines can be expanded indefinitely in culture while maintaining their potential to differentiate into any cell type. During embryonic development, the skin forms as a result of reciprocal interactions between mesoderm and ectoderm. Here, we report the in vitro differentiation and enrichment of keratinocytes from murine ES cells(More)
For more than a week prior to the emergence of a hind limb, a steady electric current is driven out of the ventrolateral flank in the immature axolotl, returning through the integument in adjacent regions of the body. A marked peak in the density of this outcurrent could be observed over the exact area of hind limb formation 4 to 6 days prior to its(More)
We have compared the anatomy of immature axolotl integument from limb-forming regions with adjacent non-limb-forming regions of the flank, concentrating on the earliest stages of limb bud development. We have extended these observations to include prominent buds just prior to their differentiation. At the ultrastructural level, we note striking differences(More)