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SAMHD1 restricts the infection of dendritic and other myeloid cells by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but in lentiviruses of the simian immunodeficiency virus of sooty mangabey (SIVsm)-HIV-2 lineage, SAMHD1 is counteracted by the virion-packaged accessory protein Vpx. Here we found that SAMHD1 restricted infection by hydrolyzing intracellular(More)
Vpr, a small HIV auxiliary protein, hijacks the CUL4 ubiquitin ligase through DCAF1 to inactivate an unknown cellular target, leading to cell cycle arrest at the G(2) phase and cell death. Here we first sought to delineate the Vpr determinants involved in the binding to DCAF1 and to the target. On the one hand, the three α-helices of Vpr are necessary and(More)
Ag sampling is a key process in dendritic cell (DC) biology. DCs use constitutive macropinocytosis, receptor-mediated endocytosis, and phagocytosis to capture exogenous Ags for presentation to T cells. We investigated the mechanisms that regulate Ag uptake by DCs in the steady-state and after a short-term LPS exposure in vitro and in vivo. We show that the(More)
The most widely recognized property of the HIV-1 Vpr auxiliary protein is its ability to arrest cell cycle progression at the G2 phase, which eventually triggers an apop-totic response. There is a long standing controversy as to whether Vpr might exhibit cytopathic activity independently of its G2 arrest property. We developed a clonogenic assay based on(More)
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