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While the long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) constitute a large portion of the mammalian transcriptome, their biological functions has remained elusive. A few long ncRNAs that have been studied in any detail silence gene expression in processes such as X-inactivation and imprinting. We used a GENCODE annotation of the human genome to characterize over a thousand(More)
We present and validate BlastR, a method for efficiently and accurately searching non-coding RNAs. Our approach relies on the comparison of di-nucleotides using BlosumR, a new log-odd substitution matrix. In order to use BlosumR for comparison, we recoded RNA sequences into protein-like sequences. We then showed that BlosumR can be used along with the(More)
Small RNAs play essential regulatory roles in genome stability, development, and responses to biotic and abiotic stresses in most eukaryotes. In plants, the RNaseIII enzyme DICER-LIKE1 (DCL1) produces miRNAs, whereas DCL2, DCL3, and DCL4 produce various size classes of siRNAs. Plants also encode RNASE THREE-LIKE (RTL) enzymes that lack DCL-specific domains(More)
RNA-seq experiments are now routinely used for the large scale sequencing of transcripts. In bacteria or archaea, such deep sequencing experiments typically produce 10-50 million fragments that cover most of the genome, including intergenic regions. In this context, the precise delineation of the non-coding elements is challenging. Non-coding elements(More)
Although post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has been studied for more than a decade, there is still a gap in our understanding of how de novo silencing is initiated against genetic elements that are not supposed to produce double-stranded (ds)RNA. Given the pervasive transcription occurring throughout eukaryote genomes, we tested the hypothesis that(More)
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