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Sulfate reduction is a globally important redox process in marine sediments, yet global rates are poorly quantified. We developed an artificial neural network trained with 199 sulfate profiles, constrained with geomorphological and geochemical maps to estimate global sulfate-reduction rate distributions. Globally, 11.3 teramoles of sulfate are reduced(More)
[1] The influence of the large-scale ocean circulation on Sahel rainfall is elusive because of the shortness of the observational record. We reconstructed the history of eolian and fluvial sedimentation on the continental slope off Senegal during the past 57,000 years. Our data show that abrupt onsets of arid conditions in the West African Sahel were linked(More)
The Sahara Desert is the largest source of mineral dust in the world. Emissions of African dust increased sharply in the early 1970s (ref. 2), a change that has been attributed mainly to drought in the Sahara/Sahel region caused by changes in the global distribution of sea surface temperature. The human contribution to land degradation and dust mobilization(More)
The German language and in particular biomedical terms exhibit a rich and productive morphology. Beyond inflection and comparison forms frequently spelling variants, German - Greek/Latin synonyms and nominal compounds exist. For the English language, the SPECIALIST LEXICON, part of the UMLS project, covers a broad range of biomedical terms. In this paper we(More)
6 and low-latitude insolation 7 over the past glacial–interglacial cycle. However, the overall dynamics of the African rainbelt remain poorly constrained and are not always consistent with a latitudinal migration 2,4–6 , as has been proposed for other regions 8,9. Here we use terrestrially derived organic and sedimentary markers from marine sediment cores(More)
Marine microorganisms adapt to their habitat by structural modification of their membrane lipids. This concept is the basis of numerous molecular proxies used for paleoenvironmental reconstruction. Archaeal tetraether lipids from ubiquitous marine planktonic archaea are particularly abundant, well preserved in the sedimentary record and used in several(More)
Abundant hydroclimatic evidence from western Amazonia and the adjacent Andes documents wet conditions during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1, 18-15 ka), a cold period in the high latitudes of the North Atlantic. This precipitation anomaly was attributed to a strengthening of the South American summer monsoon due to a change in the Atlantic interhemispheric sea(More)
Ocean margin sediments have been considered as important sources of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) to the deep ocean, yet the contribution from advective settings has just started to be acknowledged. Here we present evidence showing that near-surface heating of sediment in the Guaymas Basin, a young extensional depression, causes mass production and(More)
Despite intensive research on the different domains of the marine phosphorus (P) cycle during the last decades, frequently discussed open questions still exist especially on controlling factors for the benthic behaviour of P and its general distribution in sediment-pore water systems. Steady state or the internal balance of all relevant physical and 5(More)
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